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Table 2 Prevalence odds ratio for congenital anomalies according to maternal exposure to emissions of the municipal solid waste incinerator of Reggio Emilia, northern Italy, 1998–2006 1

From: Risk of congenital anomalies around a municipal solid waste incinerator: a GIS-based case-control study

  Entire study period Operation period Shut-down period
  Cases % (n) Controls % (n) OR (95% CI) Cases % (n) Controls % (n) OR (95% CI) Cases % (n) Controls % (n) OR (95% CI)
All abnormalities
A area (low exposure) 89.0 (203) 90.4 (206) 1.00 (referent) 91.6 (119) 89.2 (116) 1.00 (referent) 83.5 (71) 90.6 (77) 1.00 (referent)
B area (medium exposure) 7.9 (18) 5.3 (12) 1.55 (0.67–3.56) 6.1 (8) 5.4 (7) 1.10 (0.39–3.06) 11.8 (10) 5.9 (5) 3.17 (0.65–15.46)
C area (high exposure) 3.1 (7) 4.3 (10) 0.67 (0.25–1.77) 2.3 (3) 5.4 (7) 0.41 (0.11–1.61) 4.7 (4) 3.5 (3) 1.30 (0.29–5.82)
    P trend 0.883    P trend 0.321    P trend 0.308
Overall exposed area (B+C) 11.0 (25) 9.6 (22) 1.10 (0.59–2.04) 8.4 (11) 10.8 (14) 0.76 (0.34–1.69) 16.5 (14) 9.4 (8) 2.07 (0.71–6.00)
Cardiovascular anomalies
A area (low exposure) 90.6 (87) 88.6 (85) 1.00 (referent) 94.9 (56) 83.0 (49) 1.00 (referent) 81.4 (26) 96.9 (31) 1.00 (referent)
B area (medium exposure) 6.3 (6) 6.3 (6) 0.94 (0.27–3.31) 5.1 (3) 8.4 (5) 0.59 (0.14–2.49) 9.3 (3) 3.1 (1) -2
C area (high exposure) 3.1 (3) 5.2 (5) 0.58 (0.14–2.45) 0.0 (0) 8.4 (5) -2 9.3 (3) 0.0 (0) -2
    P trend 0.494    P trend 0.647    P trend 0.996
Overall exposed area (B+C) 9.4(9) 11.5 (11) 0.76 (0.30–1.96) 5.1 (3) 16.8 (10) 0.29 (0.08–1.08) 18.8 (6) 3.1 (1) -2
Nervous system defects
A area (low exposure) 95.7 (22) 87.0 (20) 1.00 (referent) 100.0 (13) 92.3 (12) 1.00 (referent) 88.9 (8) 77.8 (7) 1.00 (referent)
B area (medium exposure) 4.3 (1) 0.0 (0) -2 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) -2 11.1 (1) 0.0 (0) -2
C area (high exposure) 0.0 (0) 13.0 (3) -2 0.0 (0) 7.7 (1) -2 0.0 (0) 22.2 (2) -2
    P trend 0.200    P trend 0.995    P trend 0.354
Overall exposed area (B+C) 4.3 (1) 13.0 (3) 0.31 (0.03–3.11) 0.0 (0) 7.7 (1) -2 11.1 (1) 22.2 (2) 0.50 (0.05–5.51)
  1. 1Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) computed with conditional logistic regression
  2. 2 No point estimate could be computed