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Table 2 Neighborhoods characteristics and spatial accessibility to traditional, convenience, and non-traditional food stores by neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation, using measures of proximity and coverage*

From: Neighborhood deprivation, vehicle ownership, and potential spatial access to a variety of fruits and vegetables in a large rural area in Texas

  All Deprivation
(n= 101)
Low Deprivation
(n= 26)
Medium Deprivation
(n= 48)
High Deprivation
(n= 27)
Socioeconomic characteristics   
   Unemployment,% 2.8 ± 1.9 2.3 ± 1.5 2.7 ± 1.8 3.5 ± 2.1
   Income < 100% FPL,% 16.0 ± 9.6 10.0 ± 4.4 13.3 ± 4.6 26.5 ± 11.5
   Low education,% 15.2 ± 7.2 9.9 ± 3.7 15.0 ± 5.7 20.6 ± 8.2
   Crowded households,% 5.7 ± 5.1 3.2 ± 2.7 4.8 ± 3.8 9.8 ± 6.3
   Public assistance,% 2.9 ± 3.0 1.5 ± 1.8 2.8 ± 2.8 4.7 ± 3.7
   No vehicle available,% 8.9 ± 7.9 3.7 ± 2.7 6.8 ± 3.9 17.5 ± 9.9
   No telephone service,% 4.9 ± 3.9 3.2 ± 2.4 4.4 ± 3.0 7.4 ± 5.1
Population density 353.7 ± 755 153.5 ± 672.6 235.8 ± 613.4 756 ± 918
SPATIAL ACCESSIBILITY     
Proximity, mi     
   Supermarket 9.9 ± 8.5 11.4 ± 8.8 12.1 ± 8.0 4.7 ± 6.8
   Traditional food store 7.0 ± 6.3 9.4 ± 6.8 8.2 ± 5.8 2.5 ± 4.3
   Convenience store 3.1 ± 2.5 3.7 ± 2.7 3.8 ± 2.3 1.2 ± 2.0
   Non-traditional food store** 8.0 ± 6.5 9.5 ± 6.8 9.2 ± 6.0 4.3 ± 6.0 §
Coverage - 1 mi
   Supermarket 0.32 ± 0.58 0.23 ± 0.59 0.12 ± 0.39 0.74 ± 0.66
   Traditional food stores# 0.45 ± 0.75 0.27 ± 0.67 0.25 ± 0.70 1.0 ± 0.68
   Convenience stores 1.9 ± 2.9 1.3 ± 2.8 0.79 ± 1.8 4.5 ± 3.0
   Non-traditional food store** 0.55 ± 1.0 0.58 ± 1.4 0.27 ± 0.71 1.0 ± 1.0§
Coverage - 3 mi
   Supermarket 0.67 ± 1.0 0.58 ± 1.1 0.29 ± 0.74 1.4 ± 1.1
   Traditional food stores# 0.89 ± 1.1 0.61 ± 1.1 0.54 ± 0.99 1.8 ± 0.97
   Convenience stores 5.3 ± 7.2 4.7 ± 7.5 2.8 ± 4.9 10.4 ± 7.8
   Non-traditional food store** 1.1 ± 1.7 1.0 ± 1.8 0.52 ± 1.2 2.3 ± 1.8§
Coverage - 5 mi
   Supermarket 0.83 ± 1.1 0.81 ± 1.2 0.5 ± 0.87 1.4 ± 1.1
   Traditional food stores# 1.2 ± 1.1 0.92 ± 1.3 0.94 ± 1.1 1.8 ± 0.97
   Convenience stores 7.3 ± 8.1 7.5 ± 9.4 4.9 ± 6.1 11.2 ± 8.6§
   Non-traditional food store** 1.4 ± 1.8 1.4 ± 2.1 0.88 ± 1.4 2.3 ± 1.8
Coverage - 10 mi
   Supermarket 1.4 ± 1.1 1.4 ± 1.2 1.1 ± 0.97 1.8 ± 0.91
   Traditional food stores# 2.1 ± 1.2 2.0 ± 1.4 1.9 ± 1.1 2.5 ± 0.89
   Convenience stores 13.8 ± 9.8 15.4 ± 11.2 11.9 ± 8.5 15.5 ± 10.2
   Non-traditional food store** 2.2 ± 1.7 2.5 ± 1.9 1.8 ± 1.5 2.6 ± 1.6
  1. FPL = Federal Poverty Level. * Values calculated for each of the CBG (census block group) in the study area (n = 101). Proximity determined by the network distance from each CBG population-weighted centroid to the nearest food store; coverage is determined by the number of food stores within a specific network-based distance. Distance (proximity), numbers (coverage), and percentages (socioeconomic characteristics are shown as mean ± standard deviation overall and by category of deprivation.
  2. Items included in the Neighborhood Socioeconomic Deprivation Index
  3. Level of statistical significance for test for trend across ordered groups of neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation: p < 0.05 §p < 0.01 p < 0.001
  4. #Traditional food stores include all supercenters, supermarkets, and grocery stores
  5. **Non-traditional food stores include all dollar stores, mass merchandisers, and pharmacies that sell food items