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Table 8 Spatial accessibility to fruits and vegetables by area-level vehicle ownership, using measures of coverage*

From: Neighborhood deprivation, vehicle ownership, and potential spatial access to a variety of fruits and vegetables in a large rural area in Texas

   Low Vehicle Ownership (n= 35) Medium Vehicle Ownership (n= 32) High Vehicle Ownership (n= 34)
SPATIAL ACCESSIBILITY
   Coverage - 3 mi
   Food stores    
  Supermarket 1.2 ± 1.1 (1; 0-3) 0.4 ± 0.9 (0; 0-3) 0.5 ± 0.9 (0; 0-3)
  Traditional 1.6 ± 1.1 (2; 0-2) 0.5 ± 0.9 (0; 0-3) 0.6 ± 1.0 (0; 0-3)
   Fruits
  Fresh fruits 1.7 ± 1.2 (2; 0-3) 0.4 ± 0.9 (0; 0-3) 0.6 ± 1.1 (0; 0-3)
  Overall fruits 2.6 ± 1.8§ (3; 0-6) 0.8 ± 1.1 (0; 0-3) 0.8 ± 1.4 (0; 0-6)
   Vegetables
  Fresh vegetable 1.3 ± 1.1§ (1; 0-3) 0.4 ± 0.9 (0; 0-3) 0.5 ± 0.9 (0; 0-3)
  Overall vegetables 2.0 ± 1.4 (2.5; 0-4) 0.7 ± 1.0 (0; 0-3) 0.8 ± 1.2 (0; 0-4)
   Coverage - 5 mi
   Food stores
  Supermarket 1.2 ± 1.1 (1; 0-3) 0.6 ± 1.0 (0; 0-3) 0.7 ± 1.1 (0; 0-3)
  Traditional 1.7 ± 1.1 (2; 0-3) 0.9 ± 1.0 (1; 0-3) 0.9 ± 1.2 (0; 0-3)
   Fruits
  Fresh fruits 1.8 ± 1.2§ (2; 0-3) 0.8 ± 1.1 (0; 0-3) 0.9 ± 1.3 (0; 0-3)
  Overall fruits 2.7 ± 1.7§ (3; 0-6) 1.5 ± 1.4 (1; 0-6) 1.3 ± 1.9 (0; 0-6)
   Vegetables
  Fresh vegetables 1.4 ± 1.1 (1; 0-3) 0.7 ± 1.1 (0; 0-3) 0.7 ± 1.1 ()0; 0-3)
  Overall vegetables 2.3 ± 1.4 (3; 0-4) 1.3 ± 1.1 (1; 0-4) 1.3 ± 1.4 (1; 0-4)
   Coverage - 10 mi
   Food stores
  Supermarket 1.5 ± 1.0 (2; 0-3) 1.2 ± 1.0 (1; 0-3) 1.5 ± 1.1 (1; 0-4)
  Traditional 2.3 ± 1.0 (3; 0-4) 1.7 ± 1.0 (2; 0-4) 2.2 ± 1.3 (2; 0-5)
   Fruits
  Fresh fruits 2.3 ± 1.3 (3; 0-4) 1.7 ± 1.1 (2; 0-3) 2.3 ± 1.3 (3; 0-4_
  Overall fruits 3.6 ± 1.8 (3; 0-7) 3 ± 1.5 (3; 1-7) 3.6 ± 1.9 (3; 0-8)
   Vegetables
  Fresh vegetables 1.6 ± 1.0 (2; 0-3) 1.3 ± 1.0 (1; 0-3) 1.6 ± 1.1 (2; 0-4)
  Overall vegetables 3.4 ± 1.6 (4; 0-6) 2.8 ± 1.3 (3; 1-5) 3.4 ± 1.5 (3; 0-6)
  1. Area-level (CBG) vehicle ownership (% owner-occupied households): Low = <90.5%; medium = 90.5-95.4%; high = >95.4%. * Values calculated for each of the CBG (census block group) in the study area (n = 101). Coverage is determined by the number of food stores within a specific network-based distance. Numbers (coverage) and percentages (mean ± standard deviation, median, and range) by category of vehicle ownership
  2. Level of statistical significance for test for trend across ordered groups of area = -level vehicle ownership: p < 0.05 §p < 0.01 p < 0.001