Examples of simulated outlets using clustering with edge effect boundaries. The solid black line is the total study area and the dashed line is the internal area, so any outlets outside of the dashed line will not be included in the edge effects analysis. From left to right, the first figure represents a non-urban area with 300 outlets, 5 cluster centers, and clustering parameter ϕ = 0.005. The second figure represents an urban area with 2000 outlets, 15 cluster centers, and clustering parameter ϕ = 0.01. Solid black dots represent cluster centers and open dots represent outlet locations.