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Table 1 Descriptive statistics for environmental indicators, general health and area characteristics, for English Lower-layer Super Output Areas included in analyses (2011, n = 31,672)

From: Beyond greenspace: an ecological study of population general health and indicators of natural environment type and quality

Variable Mean SD e IQR e Min Max
Landcover types (% LSOA area coverage) a
Broadleaf woodland 4.37 - 5.81 0.00 88.94
Coniferous woodland 0.56 - 0.00 0.00 63.97
Arable/horticultural 13.59 - 19.93 0.00 95.53
Improved grassland 15.98 - 22.28 0.00 85.79
Semi-natural grassland 2.41 - 3.02 0.00 69.02
Mountain, heath & bog 0.67 - 0.00 0.00 72.65
Saltwater 0.03 - 0.00 0.00 38.49
Freshwater 0.49 - 0.00 0.00 77.65
Coastal 0.31 - 0.00 0.00 91.59
Urban/suburban 61.59 - 61.68 0.11 100.00
Environmental quality indicators
Landcover Shannon Diversity Index (2007)b 0.93 0.44 0.65 0.00 2.37
Bird species richness 2008 (number of species) 87.77 10.79 14 36 141
Freshwater ecological quality indicator (2011)c -0.10 0.39 0.43 -1.97 0.99
Protected/designated areas kernel density indicator (10 km search radius)d 81.40 - 63.42 0.00 1220.50
Protected/designated areas kernel density indicator (20 km search radius)d 97.50 - 78.09 1.00 1007.71
General health (census 2011)
Prevalence good/very good health (Directly age/sex standardised %) 80.84 5.72 8.29 59.42 94.61
Prevalence bad/very bad health (Directly age/sex standardised %) 5.79 2.81 3.80 0.74 18.75
Area characteristics
LSOA area (km2) 4.04 - 1.03 0.02 683.78
Urban n = 26,186     
Town/fringe n = 2,986     
Rural n = 2,500     
  1. aIn each case, descriptive data are presented for each land cover type across all 31,672 LSOAs e.g. mean broadleaf woodland coverage per LSOA is 4.37% by area.
  2. b.A score of 0 on the Shannon Diversity Index indicates that an LSOA is 100% covered by a single land cover type; as the number of different land covers and their relative abundance increases within the LSOA, so does the Index (e.g. an LSOA 60% urban and 40% broadleaf has a higher index than one 90% urban, 10% broadleaf).
  3. cThe freshwater quality indicator is interpolated from sample sites where overall ecological quality is scored from -2 (Bad) to 2 (High).
  4. dThe protected/designated area density indicators are relative measures with no meaningful unit; derivation is described in the text.
  5. eSD = Standard Deviation; IQR = Inter-Quartile Range. Where distribution is substantially asymmetric the SD is not stated.