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Table 2 Associations between land cover type density and directly age/sex standardised good/very good health prevalence (%)

From: Beyond greenspace: an ecological study of population general health and indicators of natural environment type and quality

Land Cover Map 2007 Aggregate Class Model 1: Single land cover types, unadjusted Model 2: Single land cover types, adjusted for IoD and urbanity Model 3: Mutually adjusted for all land covers, with IoD and urbanity
LSOA % land cover B 95% CI p B 95% CI p B 95% CI p
Broadleaf woodland 0.184 0.176,0.193 <0.001 0.036 0.033,0.039 <0.001 0.032 0.029,0.035 <0.001
Coniferous woodland 0.221 0.196,0.247 <0.001 0.017 0.008,0.027 <0.001 -0.004 -0.013,0.006 0.449
Arable and horticulture 0.070 0.067,0.073 <0.001 0.002 0.001,0.003 0.002 0.004 0.002,0.005 <0.001
Improved grassland 0.093 0.089,0.097 <0.001 0.018 0.016,0.019 <0.001 0.016 0.014,0.018 <0.001
Semi-natural grassland 0.186 0.173,0.198 <0.001 0.016 0.011,0.020 <0.001 -0.002 -0.007,0.004 0.556
Mountain, heath, bog 0.120 0.102,0.137 <0.001 0.008 0.001,0.014 0.02 0.006 -0.001,0.013 0.082
Saltwater -0.379 -0.499,-0.259 <0.001 0.072 0.029,0.115 0.001 0.074 0.032,0.117 0.001
Freshwater 0.082 0.054,0.109 <0.001 0.008 -0.002,0.018 0.103 0.000 -0.010,0.010 0.982
Coastal 0.019 -0.004,0.043 0.109 0.014 0.006,0.023 0.001 0.019 0.010,0.027 <0.001
Urban/suburban -0.061 -0.063,-0.060 <0.001 -0.011 -0.012,-0.010 <0.001 a   
  1. IoD: Indices of Deprivation. B = change in directly age/sex standardised prevalence (%) of good/very good health associated with one percentage point increase in LSOA land cover density. Bold coefficient - association in hypothesised direction, p < 0.05. Italicised coefficient - association in opposite direction to that hypothesised, p < 0.05.
  2. aUrban/suburban excluded from fully adjusted model.