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Table 3 Regression results: association between land cover type density and directly age/sex standardised bad/very bad health prevalence (%)

From: Beyond greenspace: an ecological study of population general health and indicators of natural environment type and quality

Land Cover Map 2007 Aggregate Class Model 1: Single land cover types, unadjusted Model 2: Single land cover types, adjusted for IoD and urbanity Model 3: Mutually adjusted for all land covers, with IoD and urbanity
LSOA % land cover B 95% CI p B 95% CI p B 95% CI p
Broadleaf woodland -0.082 -0.086,-0.078 <0.001 -0.010 -0.012,-0.008 <0.001 -0.009 -0.011,-0.007 <0.001
Coniferous woodland -0.100 -0.113,-0.088 <0.001 -0.003 -0.008,0.002 0.289 0.003 -0.002,0.008 0.283
Arable and horticulture -0.033 -0.035,-0.032 <0.001 -0.001 -0.001,0.000 0.098 -0.001 -0.002,-0.000 0.001
Improved grassland -0.044 -0.046,-0.042 <0.001 -0.006 -0.007,-0.006 <0.001 -0.006 -0.007,-0.005 <0.001
Semi-natural grassland -0.087 -0.093,-0.081 <0.001 -0.004 -0.007,-0.002 0.001 0.001 -0.001,0.004 0.328
Mountain, heath, bog -0.055 -0.063,-0.046 <0.001 -0.002 -0.005,0.002 0.341 -0.002 -0.006,0.002 0.329
Saltwater 0.221 0.162,0.280 <0.001 -0.011 -0.034,0.013 0.361 -0.010 -0.033,0.014 0.418
Freshwater -0.036 -0.049,-0.022 <0.001 0.000 -0.005,0.006 0.914 0.003 -0.003,0.008 0.322
Coastal -0.010 -0.021,0.002 0.106 -0.009 -0.014,-0.005 <0.001 -0.011 -0.016,-0.006 <0.001
Urban/suburban 0.029 0.028,0.030 <0.001 0.004 0.003,0.004 <0.001 a   
  1. IoD: Indices of Deprivation. B = change in directly age/sex standardised prevalence (%) of good/very good health associated with one percentage point increase in LSOA land cover density. Bold coefficient - association in hypothesised direction, p < 0.05. Italicised coefficient - association in opposite direction to that hypothesised, p < 0.05.
  2. aUrban/suburban excluded from fully adjusted model.