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Table 4 Effect of patient characteristics, area-level factors and area classes on achieved treatment targets

From: Do the classification of areas and distance matter to the assessment results of achieving the treatment targets among type 2 diabetes patients?

Variable Is HbA1c measured? (0 = no, 1 = yes) HbA1c level (0 = 7 % and over, 1 = less 7 %)
Gender (0 = male, 1 = female)   1.22 (1.10–1.35)
Age 1.02 (1.02–1.03) 0.99 (0.99–1.00)
Educated (%) 1.02 (1.01–1.04)  
Unemployed (%)   
Median income (thousands/€)   
Distance (km)   1.01 (1.00–1.02)
Inner urban area 0.57 (0.39–0.83) 1.63 (1.32–2.03)
Outer urban area 0.56 (0.40–0.79) 1.64 (1.36–1.97)
Peri-urban area   1.53 (1.22–1.91)
Local centers in rural areas 0.67 (0.56–0.81) 1.23 (1.02–1.46)
Rural areas close to urban areas   1.33 (1.08–1.65)
Rural heartland areas   1.42 (1.23–1.65)
Sparsely populated rural areas Reference category Reference category
Pop. center (0 = outside, 1 = inside)   
R2 0.022 0.014
  1. The logistic regression models revealing the effects of patient characteristics, neighborhood characteristics, area classes or the dichotomy of urban and rural on the HbA1c control measurement and the achievement of the recommended HbA1c level. The odds ratios (OR) with confidence intervals (CI) of the variables that remained statistically significant (p < 0.05) in the models are presented in the table