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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of the sample and SHS exposure prevalence

From: Individual and city-level determinants of secondhand smoke exposure in China

Group N % Sample SHS exposure prevalence Rao–Scott Chi square and p value
Individual level
 Age (years) 4.31; 0.3660
  <25 2110 15.1 30.6
  25–34 3061 25.5 27.7
  35–44 2113 20.8 30.0
  45–54 2044 19.8 29.0
  55+ 1878 18.8 24.8
 Gender 10.28; 0.0013
  Male 3747 28.6 50.0
  Female 7459 71.4 19.2
 Ethnicity 5.54; 0.0186
  Han 9776 89.7 30.0
  Other 1430 10.3 11.0
 Education 18.06; 0.0004
  Elementary school or less 634 2.4 44.7
  Junior high school 2390 18.3 50.9
  High school 4089 37.4 27.2
  Junior college or more 4093 39.0 16.0
 Occupation 40.65; 0.0001
  Managers and clerks 561 2.6 46.0
  Professionals 586 4.9 42.7
  Commerce and service 1255 10.5 53.5
  Operations 1604 13.3 47.8
  Students 1214 9.3 43.1
  Retired 1841 24.9 14.6
  Other 4145 34.4 14.7
 Per capita income (Yuan) 47.44; 0.0001
  <10,000 1416 43.2  
  10,000–19,999 3130 42.9  
  20,000–29,999 3103 29.1  
  30,000–39,999 1413 10.5  
  40,000–49,999 990 9.5  
  50,000+ 1154 15.4  
 Exposure to tobacco advertising 12.31; 0.0004
  No 6561 55.9 16.2
  Yes 4644 44.1 43.2
City-level
 Regional location 3.88; 0.1433
  East 4555 51.6 22.1
  Central 1666 9.9 25.3
  West 4985 38.6 36.8
 GDP per capita 6.96; 0.0307
  <40,000 3205 10.2 46.7
  40,000–49,999 3560 42.6 33.3
  50,000+ 4441 47.2 19.2
 Anti-smoking media news coverage 17.75; 0.0001
  <20 8394 65.1 32.7
  20–29 942 12.2 44.7
  30 and over 1870 22.7 14.3
 Local smokefree policy 0.91; 0.3404
  Yes 7562 80.6 29.5
  No 3644 19.4 21.9
  1. Significant p values are in italics