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Table 1 Variables used to measure marginalization dimensions, with hypothesized sign of loadings

From: Do marginalized neighbourhoods have less healthy retail food environments? An analysis using Bayesian spatial latent factor and hurdle models

ID Indicator Hypothesized loading sign
Residential instability
 1 % of living alone (R1) +
 2 % of youth population aged 5–15 (R2)
 3 Crowding: average number of persons per dwelling (R3)
 4 % of multi-unit housing (R4) +
 5 % of the population that is married/common-law (R5)
 6 % of dwellings that are owned (R6)
 7 % of residential mobility (same house as 5 years ago) (R7) +
Material deprivation
 8 % 25+ without certificate, diploma, or degree (M1) +
 9 % of lone-parent families (M2) +
 10 % of government transfer payment (M3) +
 11 % of unemployment 15+ (M4) +
 12 % of below low income cut-off (M5) +
 13 % of homes needing major repair (M6) +
Dependency
 14 % of seniors (65+) (D1) +
 15 Dependency ratio [(0–14) + (65+)]/(15–64) (D2) +
 16 Labor force participation rate (aged 15+) (D3)
Ethnic concentration
 17 % of 5-year recent immigrants (E1) +
 18 % of visible minority (E2) +