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Table 2 The association between double kernel density (DKD) of lung and NHL morbidity cancer rates (cases per 100,000) and distance to the revealed exposure sources (Method—multivariate regression, distance variables—linear and quadratic wind-adjusted distance terms)c

From: Spatial identification of potential health hazards: a systematic areal search approach

Variables Model 3d Model 4d
Ba and (tb) Ba and (tb)
A. Lung cancer   
 (Constant) 6.661 (2.591*) −12.629 (−3.959*)
 Distance −5.159E−04 (−7.470*) 0.003 (8.235*)
 Distance2 −2.620E−07 (−8.159*)
 N of reference points 1000 1000
 \( {\text{R}}^{2} \) 0.393 0.458
 \( {\text{R}}_{\text{adjusted}}^{2} \) 0.386 0.450
 ΔR2 0.065
 F changee 36.658*
B. NHL cancer   
 (Constant) 9.119 (5.231*) −9.144 (−4.388*)
 Distance −2.862E−04 (−5.991*) 0.003 (13.359*)
 Distance2 −2.415E−07 (−12.791*)
 N of reference points 1000 1000
 \( {\text{R}}_{{}}^{2} \) 0.242 0.369
 \( {\text{R}}_{\text{adjusted}}^{2} \) 0.234 0.361
 ΔR2 0.127
 F changee 92.855*
  1. Model 3: Multivariate linear model
  2. Model 4: Multivariate quadratic model
  3. aRegression coefficient
  4. b t-statistics in the parentheses
  5. cThe models reported in the table are estimated for the distances to the “best performing” source locations, marked by small triangles in Fig. 4, that is, source locations distances to which help to improve the models’ fits most significantly (see text for explanations)
  6. dThe models are controlled for distance to the nearest main road (m), elevation above the sea level (m), percent of Jewish population in the SCA, SCA Socio-economic status, distance to the sea (m), manufacturing employment (% of total population of SCA), NOx (ppb), PM 2.5 (ppb), total population over 65 (%),smoking rate in the SCA (%) and distance to the nearest main road (m)
  7. eF-test of R2-change compared to model without hazard source distances (i.e., Models 3A or 3B, respectively)