Skip to main content

Table 2 Linear mixed models for distance from home to food purchase location (log transformed)

From: Where do people purchase food? A novel approach to investigating food purchasing locations

All purchases Purchases made when home was the origin Purchases made at supermarkets
Model 1: Null (n = 845) Model 1: Null (n = 460) Model 1: Null (n = 300)
Intraclass correlation (%) Intraclass correlation (%) Intraclass correlation (%)
Individual 18.4 Individual 13.3 Individual 7.4
SA1 20.6 SA1 28.9 SA1 60.6
  Model 2: All characteristics (n = 845) Model 2: All characteristics (n = 460) Model 2: All characteristics (n = 300)
Coef. (95% CI) p. value Coef. (95% CI) p. value Coef. (95% CI) p. value
Age (years)
18–34  0.56 (0.13, 0.99) 0.011 0.40 (0.02, 0.79) 0.041 0.14 (−0.21, 0.49) 0.437
35–54  0.21 (−0.12, 0.54) 0.219 −0.16 (−0.45, 0.14) 0.292 0.01 (−0.25, 0.27) 0.938
55+ Ref.   Ref.   Ref.  
Sex
Female Ref.   Ref.   Ref.  
Male 0.10 (−0.25, 0.45) 0.572 −0.06 (−0.37, 0.24) 0.684 −0.34 (−0.60, −0.08) 0.010
Neighbourhood
Low SES-Low access Ref.   Ref.   Ref.  
Low SES-High access −0.25 (−0.94, 0.44) 0.477 −0.26 (−0.85, 0.32) 0.376 −0.46 (−1.33, 0.40) 0.293
High SES-Low access 0.70 (0.04, 1.36) 0.037 0.57 (0.07, 1.08) 0.025 0.75 (−0.08, 1.58) 0.077
High SES-High access −0.09 (−0.76, 0.59) 0.800 −0.19 (−0.72, 0.34) 0.477 −0.13 (−0.96, 0.71) 0.767
Location prior to food purchase
Home Ref.   n/a   Ref.  
Work 0.59 (0.42, 0.76) <0.001   0.36 (0.15, 0.58) 0.001
Other 0.13 (−0.01, 0.27) 0.075   0.12 (−0.03, 0.27) 0.124
Mode of travel from home
Car n/a   Ref.   n/a  
Public transport   0.18 (−0.29, 0.65) 0.445  
Walk/cycle   −1.15 (−1.38, −0.92) <0.001  
Day
Weekday Ref.   Ref.   Ref.  
Weekend 0.17 (0.05, 0.30) 0.008 0.14 (−0.01, 0.29) 0.06 0.10 (−0.04, 0.27) 0.153
Intraclass correlation (%) Intraclass correlation (%) Intraclass correlation (%)
Individual 14.5 Individual 9.5 Individual 6.1
SA1 16.8 SA1 11.6 SA1 52.8
  1. Nb. n. for both Model 1 and Model 2 based on non-missing values in Model 2 for comparability