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Table 4 Associations between walking and cycling and built environment (N = 2375)

From: The role of the built environment in explaining educational inequalities in walking and cycling among adults in the Netherlands

  Walking for transport Cycling for transport Walking in leisure time Cycling in leisure time
RR (95% CI) Sig. RR (95% CI) Sig. RR (95% CI) Sig. RR (95% CI) Sig.
Address density
 1 (low) 1.00 0.000 1.00 0.293 1.00 0.005 1.00 0.004
 2 1.04 (0.93–1.16) 0.96 (0.86–1.06) 0.90 (0.85–0.96) 0.90 (0.83–0.98)
 3 (high) 1.33 (1.21–1.47) 0.92 (0.84–1.02) 0.99 (0.94–1.04) 0.89 (0.82–0.96)
Population density
 1 (low) 1.00 0.001 1.00 0.049 1.00 0.781 1.00 0.048
 2 1.07 (0.97–1.19) 0.96 (0.86–1.06) 0.99 (0.93–1.05) 0.96 (0.89–1.04)
 3 (high) 1.22 (1.10–1.35) 0.89 (0.81–0.98) 1.01 (0.94–1.08) 0.91 (0.84–0.98)
Level of mixed use
 1 (low) 1.00 0.159 1.00 0.549 1.00 0.821 1.00 0.740
 2 1.10 (1.00–1.21) 1.04 (0.96–1.13) 1.02 (0.95–1.08) 1.03 (0.95–1.12)
 3 (high) 1.05 (0.94–1.18) 1.00 (0.89–1.12) 1.02 (0.95–1.09) 1.02 (0.94–1.11)
Connectivity
 1 (low) 1.00 0.027 1.00 0.505 1.00 0.966 1.00 0.284
 2 1.10 (0.997–1.22) 0.95 (0.86–1.06) 1.00 (0.94–1.07) 1.00 (0.92–1.08)
 3 (high) 1.14 (1.03–1.26) 0.94 (0.86–1.04) 1.01 (0.94–1.07) 0.94 (0.87–1.02)
Accessibility of facilities
 1 (low) 1.00 0.000 1.00 0.890 1.00 0.037 1.00 0.959
 2 1.09 (0.98–1.21) 1.02 (0.93–1.12) 0.96 (0.90–1.03) 1.01 (0.93–1.10)
 3 (high) 1.26 (1.13–1.41) 1.01 (0.91–1.12) 1.04 (0.99–1.11) 1.00 (0.92–1.08)
Accessibility of parks
 1 (low) 1.00 0.354 1.00 0.530 1.00 0.632 1.00 0.538
 2 1.03 (0.94–1.14) 1.00 (0.91–1.11) 1.01 (0.96–1.07) 0.99 (0.91–1.07)
 3 (high) 0.95 (0.86–1.06) 0.96 (0.86–1.07) 0.98 (0.91–1.05) 0.96 (0.88–1.04)
Accessibility of forests
 1 (low) 1.00 0.015 1.00 0.218 1.00 0.758 1.00 0.592
 2 0.89 (0.80–0.99) 1.08 (0.98–1.19) 0.98 (0.92–1.05) 1.03 (0.95–1.12)
 3 (high) 0.87 (0.78–0.96) 1.07 (0.98–1.17) 0.98 (0.91–1.04) 1.04 (0.96–1.13)
Accessibility of open natural areas
 1 (low) 1.00 0.605 1.00 0.603 1.00 0.378 1.00 0.088
 2 0.95 (0.85–1.06) 1.05 (0.96–1.15) 1.01 (0.95–1.08) 1.08 (1.01–1.17)
 3 (high) 0.96 (0.88–1.06) 1.02 (0.93–1.13) 0.96 (0.90–1.03) 1.02 (0.94–1.11)
Accessibility of public green space
 1 (low) 1.00 0.379 1.00 0.539 1.00 0.292 1.00 0.040
 2 0.95 (0.86–1.04) 0.95 (0.87–1.04) 0.99 (0.94–1.04) 0.93 (0.87–1.00)
 3 (high) 0.92 (0.79–1.06) 0.97 (0.84–1.11) 0.92 (0.83–1.02) 0.89 (0.80–0.99)
  1. All built environment variables were analyzed separately from each other
  2. All analyses were adjusted for variations in sex, age, employment status and educational level