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Table 5 Associations between educational level and walking and cycling adjusted for significant built environment variables

From: The role of the built environment in explaining educational inequalities in walking and cycling among adults in the Netherlands

Educational level RR (95% CI) Sig. ΔRR
Walking for transporta
 Low 1.00 0.262  
 Middle 1.01 (0.90–1.13)   +0.03
 High 0.94 (0.85–1.04)   +0.03
Cycling for transportb
 Low 1.00 0.014  
 Middle 1.01 (0.93–1.11)   −0.01
 High 1.12 (1.03–1.22)   −0.01
Walking in leisure timec
 Low 1.00 0.004  
 Middle 1.12 (1.04–1.21)   0.00
 High 1.12 (1.04–1.21)   0.00
Cycling in leisure timed
 Low 1.00 0.039  
 Middle 1.05 (0.97–1.14)   −0.01
 High 1.11 (1.02–1.20)   −0.01
  1. The changes in risk ratios (ΔRR) compare the risk ratios after adjustment for built environment variables to the risk ratios before adjustment for built environment variables (see Table 3)
  2. aAdjusted for variations in sex, age, employment status, address density, population density, connectivity, accessibility of facilities and accessibility of forests
  3. bAdjusted for variations in sex, age, employment status and population density
  4. cAdjusted for variations in sex, age, employment status, address density and accessibility of facilities
  5. dAdjusted for variations in sex, age, employment status, address density, population density and accessibility of public green space