Skip to main content

Table 2 Spatial characterization of different field of neighbourhood

From: Developing a data-driven spatial approach to assessment of neighbourhood influences on the spatial distribution of myocardial infarction

Domain Category Variables Spatial shape Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis
Domain 1: socio-economic environment Population Total population
All socio-economic variables
Zonal data available at census block level (2000 inhabitants on average) Using the ArcGIS software zone-clipping algorithm, we disaggregated the variables according to real weighting interpolation methods. Because the value of the information transferred to the cell was thus a function of the area common to both the initial area (here, the census block) and the grid cell, these variables were able to be integrated into the final analysis
Domain 2 : public resources Healthcare system Location of doctors’ surgeries
Location of healthcare centres
Point data: address We assigned to each cell centroid the road distance (non-Euclidian) to the nearest healthcare centre or doctor’s surgery
  Public parks and gardens Location and area of public parks and gardens Polygon data:
Location and size
We built an attractiveness index for public parks and gardens, derived from French studies showing that attractiveness is a function of size. Using GIS tools, we drew concentric zones of attractiveness by area: 100 m (area less than 1 ha), 500 m (area 1–10 ha), and 1000 m for larger areas. We subsequently computed this index for each cell
  Sports facilities Location of sport facilities Point data: address and coordinate X, Y The road network distance to the nearest sports facility was attributed to each cell centroid
  Public transportation supply Location of bus and tram stop and the number of lines served at each Point data: coordinate X, Y Using GIS tools, and on the basis of modal differential attractiveness between these two types of public transportation, we constructed a public transportation availability indicator, with a catchment area attributed to each stop (300 m for a bus stop, 400 m for a tram station), weighted by the number of lines at each stop or station. This indicator was then assigned to each cell
Domain 3: psychosocial environment Local businesses Location of retail outlets Point data: address and coordinate X, Y Using GIS tools, we attributed to each unit the quantity of retail stores relative to all available retail space within a radius of 200 m around the spatial unit centroids. The resulting values associated with the retail store scoring (quantity of retail stores relative to all available retail space) by category (itinerant vendors; retail food stores; retail non-food stores and other services) were attributed to each unita
   Location of food markets Point data: address and coordinate X, Y  
  Characterization of educational facilities Violence in schools
Schools’ social scores
Primary/middle and secondary (high) schools
ZEP (priority) and successful (AR) middle schools
Map showing primary and middle schools
Secondary (High) schools
Point data: address and coordinate X, Y The French school environment is graded as: (1) Priority education zones (ZEP-Zone d’éducation prioritaire), where establishments receive additional resources and have greater autonomy for dealing with educational and social difficulties, (2) “successful ambition” zones (AR), having fewer (but definite) needs and thus fewer resources), and (3) others. All non-private schools in the city and their catchment area were geocoded, using information provided by local authorities. We computed an indicator taking into account school density and classification (primary/middle or secondary/high schools)
  Voting rates Voting rates Zonal data available for each center of vote  
  Civic associations Civic associations Point data: address and coordinate X, Y The fairly exhaustive and georeferenced SIRENE database allowed calculation of the ratio of the number of (official) civic associations per 100 inhabitants in each unit, taking into consideration their type (religious, political, other)
   Type of civic associations: religious, political, volunteer Point data: address and coordinate X, Y  
  1. a200 m is the distance for which 50% of the cells have at least one market