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Table 2 Multilevel linear regression model of the relationship between gentrification and collective efficacy adjusted for neighborhood and socio-demographic characteristics

From: Is gentrification all bad? Positive association between gentrification and individual’s perceived neighborhood collective efficacy in Montreal, Canada

  β (95% CI) P value
Constant 29.33 (25.50, 33.16) 0.00
Age −0.01 (−0.04, 0.01) 0.31
Sex (ref. male)
 Female −1.08 (−1.70, −0.46) 0.00
Language (ref. first language is French)
 First language is not French −1.09 (−1.75, −0.43) 0.00
Education (ref. bachelor’s degree)
 High school or less 0.46 (−0.40, 1.31) 0.30
 Post-secondary education of a lower level than a bachelor’s degree 0.61 (−0.13, 1.34) 0.11
Neighborhood poverty 0.09 (−0.30, 0.47) 0.66
Household income −0.85 (−1.56, −0.14) 0.02
Tenure (ref. owner)
 Renter 2.62 (1.88, 3.37) 0.00
Number of years lived in dwelling −0.03 (−0.07, 0.02) 0.20
Gentrification (ref. no)
 Yes 1.54 (0.16, 2.93) 0.03
Random effects
 Tract variance 2.43 (1.32, 4.50) 0.01
  1. Significance level: P = 0.05