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Table 3 Multilevel linear regression model for the relationship between type of resident and collective efficacy adjusted for neighborhood and socio-demographic characteristics

From: Is gentrification all bad? Positive association between gentrification and individual’s perceived neighborhood collective efficacy in Montreal, Canada

  β 95% CI P Value
Constant 31.09 (27.13, 35.06) 0.00
Age −0.02 (−0.04, 0.01) 0.18
Sex (ref. male)
 Female −1.09 (−1.72, −0.47) 0.00
Education (ref. Bachelor’s degree)
 Highschool or less 0.44 (−0.42, 1.30) 0.31
 Post-secondary education of a lower level than a bachelor’s degree 0.59 (−0.14, 1.32) 0.12
Neighborhood poverty 0.08 (−0.30, 0.47) 0.67
Type of resident (ref. Moved into a gentrifying neighborhood)
 Original resident of a gentrifying neighborhood −1.25 (−3.36, 0.85) 0.24
 Moved into a neighborhood that did not gentrify −1.72 (−3.15, −0.29) 0.02
 Original resident of a neighborhood that did not gentrify −1.96 (−3.54, −0.37) 0.02
Household income −0.86 (−1.57, −0.15) 0.02
First language (ref. first language is French)
 First language is not French −1.10 (−1.76, −0.44) 0.00
Tenure (ref. owner)
 Renter 2.69 (1.96, 3.42) 0.00
Random effects
 Tract variance 2.44 (1.32, 4.51) 0.00
  1. Significance level: P = 0.05