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Table 1 Approaches for conceptualizing and measuring the potential spatial access to services and facilities for residential areas.

From: The approaches to measuring the potential spatial access to urban health services revisited: distance types and aggregation-error issues

Conceptualization Accessibility measures
Immediate proximity or minimum travel time or distance The distance between a location and the closest facility
Availability provided by the immediate surroundings or cumulative opportunity The number of facilities within a given distance from a point of origin
Average cost to reach all destinations The average distance between a location and all facilities
Average cost to reach diversity The average distance between a location and n facilities
Accessibility according to proximity and availability Gravity models, two-step floating catchment area (2SFCA) methods