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Table 2 Regression results for urban–rural indicators

From: Urban–rural inequalities in suicide mortality: a comparison of urbanicity indicators

Model Urban–rural indicator   Relative risk 2.5% CI 97.5% CI
#2 Census (logged pop. density) Continuous variable 0.943* 0.909 0.980
#3 Census (pop. density clustered in 3 regions) (Ref. rural area) Rural areas with densification 0.940 0.882 1.000
Urban areas 0.853* 0.775 0.940
#4 IOER (logged built-up areas %) Continuous variable 0.919* 0.864 0.979
#5 IOER (built-up areas clustered in 3 regions) (Ref. rural area) Rural areas with densification 0.958 0.902 1.017
Urban areas 0.854* 0.771 0.946
#6 Corine (logged built-up areas %) Continuous variable 0.944* 0.896 0.995
#7 Corine (built-up areas clustered in 3 regions) (Ref. rural area) Rural areas with densification 0.979 0.921 1.040
Urban areas 0.887* 0.804 0.978
#8 BBSR (typol. with 2 regions) (Ref. rural area) Urban areas 0.954 0.896 1.016
#9 BBSR (typol. with 3 regions) (Ref. rural area) Rural areas with densification 0.978 0.908 1.053
Urban areas 0.940 0.869 1.017
#10 BBSR (typol. with 4 regions) (Ref. rural area) Rural areas with densification 0.978 0.908 1.053
Urbanized areas 0.946 0.875 1.024
Urban area (major city) 0.883* 0.787 0.990
#11 Pop. potential scores (logged) Continuous variable 0.903* 0.854 0.955
#12 Pop. potential scores (clustered in 3 regions) (Ref. rural area) Rural areas with densification 0.922* 0.867 0.981
Urban areas 0.850* 0.774 0.934
#13 Cumulative opport. index (logged) Continuous variable 0.940* 0.902 0.981
#14 Cumulative opport. index (clustered in 2 regions) (Ref. rural area) Urban areas 0.928* 0.876 0.983
#15 ESTAT (typol. with 3 regions) (Ref. rural area) Rural areas with densification 0.973 0.913 1.036
Urban areas 0.943 0.865 1.028
  1. The models are adjusted for risk and protective factors. A relative risk labeled as “*” refer to a significant association. Model #1 does not adjust for urban–rural differences