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Table 1 Outdoor environmental factors mapped for association with adverse birth outcomes

From: Mapping outdoor habitat and abnormally small newborns to develop an ambient health hazard index

Category Variable Year Feature Method Radius (km) Units Source
Built 136 air substances Average 2006–2012 Point Kernel density 10 tonnes or kg/km2 EnvCan [9]
Industrial facilities Unique 2006–2012 Point 3 #/km2
Roads 2012 Line km/km2 StatsCan [69]
Electrical power lines 2012 Line km/km2 AltaLIS [70]
Gas stations 2015 Point #/km2 DMTI Spatial [41]
Waste/landfills 2015 Point #/km2
Oil/gas well pads 2012 Point #/km2 ABMI [71]
High density livestock operations 2012 Area Focal statistics #/km2
Mine sites 2012 Area km2/km2
Cultivated lands 2012 Area km2/km2
Nighttime lights Average 2006–2012 Raster None 0 index NOAA [72]
Social Food stores 2015 Point Kernel density 3 #/km2 DMTI Spatial [41]
Health care 2015 Point #/km2
Hospitals 2015 Point #/km2
Aboriginal lands 2016 Area Focal statistics km2/km2 NRCan [73]
Neighborhood socioeconomic index 2006 Raster None 0 index Chan [74]
Natural Vegetation/naturalness Maximum 2006–2012 Raster Focal statistics 3 index/km2 NASA [35]
Water 2013 Area km2/km2 NRCan [73]
Wildfires Average 2006–2012 Area 50 km2/km2 AgFor [75]
  1. The time (year), distance threshold (radius in meters), units, and source are indicated for each