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Table 3 Spearman’s rank correlations of small for gestational age (SGA) and low birth weight at term (LBWT) with air substances and land sources (*), in descending correlation rho values

From: Mapping outdoor habitat and abnormally small newborns to develop an ambient health hazard index

Variable Province rho Health Region count (rho range) Airshed Zone count (rho range)
SGA LBWT SGA LBWT SGA LBWT
i-Butyl alcohol 0.56 0.54 1 (0.02 to 0.81) 3 (0.42 to 0.80) 1 (0.32 to 0.81) 2 (0.45 to 0.80)
Asbestos (friable form) 0.54 0.52 1 (0.73 to 0.73) 1 (0.67 to 0.67) 1 (0.73 to 0.73) 1 (0.67 to 0.67)
*Nighttime Light 0.51 0.47 2 (− 0.17 to 0.48) 1 (− 0.50 to 0.42) 2 (− 0.40 to 0.51) 3 (− 0.50 to 0.52)
Toluenediisocyanate (mixed isomers) 0.49 0.51 0 (0.26 to 0.26) 1 (0.42 to 0.42) 0 (0.26 to 0.26) 1 (0.42 to 0.42)
Toluene-2,4-diisocyanate 0.49 0.50 0 (0.26 to 0.26) 1 (0.41 to 0.41) 0 (0.26 to 0.26) 1 (0.41 to 0.41)
Toluene-2,6-diisocyanate 0.49 0.50 0 (0.26 to 0.26) 1 (0.41 to 0.41) 0 (0.26 to 0.26) 1 (0.41 to 0.41)
Chromium (and its compounds) 0.48 0.47 2 (− 0.07 to 0.68) 2 (− 0.07 to 0.77) 2 (− 0.23 to 0.68) 2 (− 0.26 to 0.77)
Aluminum (fume or dust) 0.48 0.49 1 (0.20 to 0.67) 1 (0.25 to 0.76) 1 (− 0.18 to 0.67) 1 (− 0.20 to 0.76)
Hydrogen sulphide 0.47 0.47 4 (− 0.09 to 0.59) 3 (− 0.06 to 0.67) 3 (− 0.34 to 0.59) 3 (− 0.35 to 0.67)
*Road 0.46 0.42 2 (− 0.11 to 0.47) 0 (− 0.37 to 0.38) 3 (− 0.01 to 0.60) 2 (− 0.37 to 0.51)
2-Ethoxyethanol 0.44 0.46 0 (0.25 to 0.25) 1 (0.41 to 0.41) 0 (0.25 to 0.25) 1 (0.41 to 0.41)
Nickel (and its compounds) 0.44 0.39 2 (− 0.20 to 0.66) 3 (− 0.88 to 0.75) 2 (− 0.24 to 0.66) 2 (− 0.88 to 0.75)
Quinoline (and its salts) 0.43 0.46 0 (0.25 to 0.25) 1 (0.40 to 0.40) 0 (0.25 to 0.25) 1 (0.40 to 0.40)
Aniline (and its salts) 0.43 0.45 0 (0.25 to 0.25) 1 (0.40 to 0.40) 0 (0.25 to 0.25) 1 (0.40 to 0.40)
Cyclohexane 0.42 0.42 3 (− 0.07 to 0.81) 3 (− 0.07 to 0.81) 3 (− 0.27 to 0.81) 3 (− 0.30 to 0.81)
Acetaldehyde 0.42 0.42 4 (− 0.41 to 0.60) 3 (− 0.07 to 0.59) 4 (− 0.34 to 0.60) 3 (− 0.34 to 0.59)
Phosphorus (total) 0.42 0.38 1 (− 0.20 to 0.49) 1 (− 0.88 to 0.44) 1 (− 0.49 to 0.52) 1 (− 0.88 to 0.46)
Isopropyl alcohol 0.40 0.41 2 (− 0.40 to 0.52) 3 (− 0.47 to 0.53) 2 (− 0.60 to 0.77) 2 (− 0.67 to 0.52)
PAHs, Total unspeciated 0.40 0.40 0 (0.30 to 0.32) 1 (0.33 to 0.43) 0 (0.26 to 0.32) 1 (0.29 to 0.43)
Ethylene oxide 0.36 0.41 0 (− 0.43 to 0.25) 1 (− 0.20 to 0.41) 0 (− 0.30 to 0.25) 1 (− 0.32 to 0.41)
Ammonia (total) 0.36 0.34 1 (− 0.41 to 0.63) 1 (− 0.75 to 0.73) 1 (− 0.50 to 0.53) 1 (− 0.75 to 0.66)
Phosphorus (yellow or white) 0.35 0.37 0 (− 0.14 to 0.05) 0 (− 0.14 to 0.23) 0 (− 0.15 to 0.05) 0 (− 0.14 to 0.23)
Methylenebis(phenylisocyanate) 0.34 0.38 0 (− 0.43 to 0.23) 0 (− 0.49 to 0.38) 0 (0.13 to 0.23) 1 (0.38 to 0.72)
PM10—Particulate Matter <= 10 Microns 0.33 0.30 3 (− 0.33 to 0.89) 3 (− 0.83 to 0.62) 3 (− 0.75 to 0.93) 4 (− 0.83 to 0.68)
n-Butyl alcohol 0.31 0.32 1 (− 0.71 to 0.79) 1 (− 0.75 to 0.81) 1 (0.19 to 0.79) 1 (0.36 to 0.81)
Dichloromethane 0.31 0.31 1 (0.27 to 0.72) 2 (0.42 to 0.74) 1 (− 0.22 to 0.71) 2 (− 0.25 to 0.73)
Ethylene 0.30 0.33 3 (0.02 to 0.80) 3 (0.02 to 0.79) 3 (− 0.32 to 0.80) 3 (− 0.33 to 0.79)
Styrene 0.30 0.31 1 (0.00 to 0.81) 1 (− 0.01 to 0.82) 1 (− 0.32 to 0.83) 1 (− 0.32 to 0.85)
Lead (and its compounds) 0.30 0.30 3 (− 0.07 to 0.68) 4 (− 0.26 to 0.76) 3 (− 0.23 to 0.87) 3 (− 0.65 to 0.76)
*Food Store 0.28 0.28 1 (− 0.18 to 0.58) 1 (− 0.23 to 0.57) 2 (− 0.18 to 0.58) 1 (− 0.17 to 0.57)
Cumene 0.27 0.27 1 (0.29 to 0.58) 2 (0.44 to 0.61) 1 (− 0.14 to 0.57) 2 (− 0.09 to 0.60)
Methyl isobutyl ketone 0.25 0.26 1 (0.07 to 0.69) 1 (0.25 to 0.73) 1 (0.07 to 0.67) 1 (0.08 to 0.71)
Xylene (mixed isomers) 0.24 0.26 1 (− 0.71 to 0.54) 5 (− 0.74 to 0.59) 2 (− 0.65 to 0.74) 5 (− 0.47 to 0.87)
Sulphur dioxide 0.24 0.20 5 (− 0.27 to 0.88) 3 (− 0.87 to 0.74) 4 (− 0.35 to 0.91) 2 (− 0.87 to 0.68)
Manganese (and its compounds) 0.24 0.21 3 (− 0.03 to 0.68) 4 (− 0.34 to 0.72) 3 (− 0.50 to 0.65) 3 (− 0.71 to 0.70)
Fluorene—PAH 0.23 0.13 2 (− 0.32 to 0.50) 2 (− 0.89 to 0.55) 2 (− 0.49 to 0.52) 2 (− 0.89 to 0.53)
2-Butoxyethanol 0.22 0.23 1 (− 0.69 to 0.66) 1 (− 0.70 to 0.66) 1 (0.11 to 0.64) 1 (0.11 to 0.64)
*Gas Station 0.20 0.20 1 (− 0.23 to 0.58) 0 (− 0.25 to 0.30) 2 (− 0.41 to 0.56) 1 (− 0.42 to 0.58)
Naphthalene 0.20 0.14 1 (− 0.21 to 0.59) 2 (− 0.89 to 0.63) 1 (− 0.40 to 0.61) 2 (− 0.89 to 0.65)
Propylene 0.18 0.19 1 (− 0.11 to 0.68) 1 (− 0.01 to 0.71) 1 (− 0.30 to 0.70) 1 (− 0.31 to 0.73)
*Health Care 0.17 0.17 2 (− 0.21 to 0.51) 0 (− 0.36 to 0.24) 2 (− 0.22 to 0.53) 0 (− 0.49 to 0.28)
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) 0.17 0.15 3 (− 0.45 to 0.88) 2 (− 0.74 to 0.67) 2 (− 0.45 to 0.92) 1 (− 0.74 to 0.69)
Toluene 0.17 0.19 1 (− 0.05 to 0.68) 2 (− 0.35 to 0.72) 2 (− 0.66 to 0.74) 3 (− 0.46 to 0.89)
Formic acid 0.14 0.15 0 (− 0.50 to 0.39) 1 (− 0.50 to 0.52) 0 (− 0.49 to 0.39) 1 (− 0.50 to 0.52)
PM2.5—Particulate Matter <= 2.5 Microns 0.14 0.11 4 (− 0.57 to 0.88) 3 (− 0.73 to 0.59) 3 (− 0.57 to 0.91) 4 (− 0.73 to 0.61)
1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene 0.13 0.18 1 (− 0.05 to 0.57) 2 (− 0.07 to 0.60) 2 (− 0.38 to 0.67) 1 (− 0.47 to 0.60)
Formaldehyde 0.12 0.10 2 (− 0.41 to 0.70) 3 (− 0.81 to 0.71) 3 (− 0.29 to 0.83) 3 (− 0.81 to 0.70)
Vanadium (except when in an alloy) and its compounds 0.11 0.12 1 (− 0.05 to 0.49) 1 (0.05 to 0.54) 1 (− 0.21 to 0.47) 1 (− 0.16 to 0.52)
Carbon disulphide 0.10 0.10 1 (− 0.21 to 0.41) 1 (− 0.28 to 0.52) 1 (− 0.26 to 0.75) 0 (− 0.32 to 0.30)
Benzo(g,h,i)perylene—PAH 0.10 0.05 2 (− 0.27 to 0.60) 2 (− 0.89 to 0.65) 2 (− 0.49 to 0.59) 2 (− 0.89 to 0.64)
Indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene—PAH 0.09 0.05 2 (− 0.27 to 0.61) 2 (− 0.89 to 0.65) 2 (− 0.49 to 0.59) 2 (− 0.89 to 0.64)
Pyrene—PAH 0.09 0.03 2 (− 0.27 to 0.62) 2 (− 0.89 to 0.66) 2 (− 0.49 to 0.61) 2 (− 0.89 to 0.65)
Perylene—PAH 0.09 0.04 2 (− 0.27 to 0.60) 2 (− 0.89 to 0.64) 2 (− 0.49 to 0.59) 2 (− 0.89 to 0.64)
Benzo(a)phenanthrene—PAH 0.09 0.04 2 (− 0.27 to 0.61) 2 (− 0.89 to 0.64) 2 (− 0.49 to 0.60) 2 (− 0.89 to 0.64)
Benzo(e)pyrene—PAH 0.08 0.04 2 (− 0.27 to 0.61) 2 (− 0.89 to 0.65) 2 (− 0.27 to 0.59) 2 (− 0.89 to 0.64)
Benzo(a)anthracene—PAH 0.08 0.04 2 (− 0.27 to 0.61) 2 (− 0.89 to 0.65) 2 (− 0.27 to 0.59) 2 (− 0.89 to 0.64)
Fluoranthene—PAH 0.08 0.02 2 (− 0.27 to 0.61) 2 (− 0.89 to 0.65) 2 (− 0.27 to 0.60) 2 (− 0.89 to 0.64)
Methyl ethyl ketone 0.08 0.08 1 (− 0.21 to 0.80) 1 (− 0.31 to 0.82) 1 (− 0.32 to 0.79) 1 (− 0.32 to 0.81)
Benzene 0.07 0.09 0 (− 0.12 to 0.29) 1 (− 0.08 to 0.54) 1 (− 0.66 to 0.70) 2 (− 0.31 to 0.88)
Benzo(k)fluoranthene—PAH 0.07 0.02 2 (− 0.27 to 0.60) 2 (− 0.89 to 0.65) 2 (− 0.49 to 0.59) 2 (− 0.89 to 0.64)
*Aboriginal Land 0.07 0.05 0 (− 0.35 to 0.00) 0 (− 0.29 to 0.03) 0 (− 0.64 to − 0.04) 0 (− 0.29 to 0.23)
Diethanolamine (and its salts) 0.07 0.06 1 (0.00 to 0.41) 1 (− 0.01 to 0.46) 1 (− 0.25 to 0.44) 1 (− 0.25 to 0.49)
Benzo(a)pyrene—PAH 0.06 0.02 2 (− 0.27 to 0.57) 2 (− 0.89 to 0.61) 2 (− 0.49 to 0.56) 2 (− 0.89 to 0.60)
Aluminum oxide (fibrous forms) 0.06 0.05 1 (0.81 to 0.81) 1 (0.80 to 0.80) 1 (0.81 to 0.81) 1 (0.81 to 0.81)
Benzo(j)fluoranthene—PAH 0.06 0.01 2 (− 0.27 to 0.57) 2 (− 0.89 to 0.61) 2 (− 0.49 to 0.56) 2 (− 0.89 to 0.60)
Benzo(b)fluoranthene—PAH 0.06 0.01 2 (− 0.27 to 0.57) 2 (− 0.89 to 0.61) 2 (− 0.49 to 0.56) 2 (− 0.89 to 0.60)
n-Hexane 0.04 0.05 2 (− 0.09 to 0.63) 2 (− 0.31 to 0.65) 2 (− 0.36 to 0.53) 2 (− 0.47 to 0.85)
Calcium fluoride 0.03 0.02 1 (0.67 to 0.67) 1 (0.71 to 0.71) 1 (0.08 to 0.67) 1 (0.08 to 0.70)
Carbonyl sulphide 0.03 0.03 1 (0.04 to 0.41) 2 (− 0.28 to 0.52) 2 (− 0.26 to 0.75) 1 (− 0.31 to 0.48)
*Mine site 0.02 0.00 2 (− 0.35 to 0.43) 4 (− 0.41 to 0.50) 1 (− 0.21 to 0.53) 2 (− 0.60 to 0.57)
Biphenyl 0.01 0.00 1 (0.60 to 0.60) 1 (0.64 to 0.64) 1 (− 0.16 to 0.59) 1 (− 0.11 to 0.63)
*Waste/Landfill 0.01 0.05 0 (− 0.29 to 0.30) 1 (− 0.31 to 0.42) 1 (− 0.29 to 0.80) 1 (− 0.27 to 0.42)
Ethylene glycol 0.00 0.00 1 (− 0.69 to 0.41) 2 (− 0.85 to 0.53) 1 (− 0.44 to 0.75) 1 (− 0.85 to 0.49)
Hydrogen fluoride 0.00 0.00 1 (0.04 to 0.55) 1 (− 0.05 to 0.59) 1 (− 0.09 to 0.54) 1 (− 0.01 to 0.58)
Methyl tert-butyl ether 0.00 − 0.01 1 (0.77 to 0.77) 1 (0.78 to 0.78) 1 (0.15 to 0.76) 1 (0.15 to 0.77)
n,n-Dimethylformamide 0.00 − 0.02 1 (0.72 to 0.72) 1 (0.74 to 0.74) 1 (0.15 to 0.71) 1 (0.15 to 0.73)
Vinyl acetate 0.00 − 0.01 1 (0.56 to 0.56) 1 (0.58 to 0.58) 1 (0.54 to 0.54) 1 (0.57 to 0.57)
N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone 0.00 − 0.01 1 (0.53 to 0.53) 1 (0.57 to 0.57) 1 (0.15 to 0.52) 1 (0.15 to 0.56)
Isoprene 0.00 0.00 0 (0.00 to 0.00) 0 (− 0.01 to − 0.01) 0 (− 0.01 to − 0.01) 0 (− 0.01 to − 0.01)
Titanium tetrachloride 0.00 0.00 0 (0.00 to 0.00) 0 (− 0.01 to − 0.01) 0 (− 0.01 to − 0.01) 0 (− 0.01 to − 0.01)
Methanol − 0.01 − 0.01 1 (− 0.39 to 0.52) 1 (− 0.79 to 0.48) 0 (− 0.39 to 0.30) 1 (− 0.79 to 0.48)
Cresol (all isomers and their salts) − 0.01 − 0.02 1 (0.00 to 0.55) 1 (− 0.32 to 0.59) 1 (− 0.49 to 0.54) 1 (− 0.72 to 0.58)
Carbon monoxide − 0.01 − 0.04 2 (− 0.41 to 0.89) 1 (− 0.82 to 0.60) 2 (− 0.41 to 0.92) 2 (− 0.82 to 0.48)
Trichloroethylene − 0.01 − 0.01 1 (0.49 to 0.49) 1 (0.53 to 0.53) 1 (− 0.24 to 0.51) 1 (− 0.27 to 0.56)
p-Phenylenediamine (and its salts) − 0.02 − 0.01 0 (− 0.03 to − 0.03) 0 (− 0.03 to − 0.03) 0 (− 0.18 to − 0.18) 0 (− 0.13 to − 0.13)
Acrolein − 0.02 − 0.10 1 (0.06 to 0.70) 1 (0.00 to 0.67) 1 (0.05 to 0.75) 0 (0.05 to 0.20)
Hexavalent chromium (and its compounds) − 0.02 0.02 0 (− 0.07 to 0.31) 0 (− 0.32 to 0.17) 0 (− 0.50 to 0.08) 0 (− 0.71 to 0.25)
Dibenzo(a,i)pyrene—PAH − 0.02 − 0.09 1 (− 0.21 to 0.54) 1 (− 0.89 to 0.59) 1 (− 0.21 to 0.53) 1 (− 0.89 to 0.58)
7H-Dibenzo(c,g)carbazole—PAH − 0.02 − 0.11 1 (− 0.21 to 0.55) 1 (− 0.89 to 0.59) 1 (− 0.21 to 0.54) 1 (− 0.89 to 0.58)
tert-Butyl alcohol − 0.02 − 0.03 0 (0.31 to 0.31) 0 (0.35 to 0.35) 0 (0.17 to 0.29) 0 (0.17 to 0.34)
Molybdenum trioxide − 0.03 − 0.11 1 (− 0.20 to 0.44) 1 (− 0.88 to 0.49) 1 (− 0.20 to 0.43) 1 (− 0.88 to 0.48)
Acenaphthene—PAH − 0.03 − 0.11 2 (− 0.21 to 0.63) 2 (− 0.89 to 0.66) 2 (− 0.49 to 0.61) 2 (− 0.89 to 0.66)
Chlorine − 0.04 − 0.02 2 (− 0.55 to 0.54) 3 (− 0.32 to 0.57) 2 (− 0.55 to 0.56) 3 (− 0.72 to 0.60)
Phenanthrene—PAH − 0.05 − 0.11 1 (− 0.27 to 0.49) 2 (− 0.89 to 0.44) 1 (− 0.49 to 0.52) 1 (− 0.89 to 0.46)
*Industrial facility − 0.05 − 0.02 1 (− 0.18 to 0.43) 0 (− 0.46 to 0.29) 1 (− 0.62 to 0.47) 1 (− 0.59 to 0.40)
*Hospital − 0.05 − 0.03 1 (− 0.19 to 0.44) 0 (− 0.30 to 0.19) 2 (− 0.33 to 0.70) 0 (− 0.47 to 0.19)
5-Methylchrysene—PAH − 0.06 − 0.22 0 (− 0.21 to − 0.21) 0 (− 0.89 to − 0.89) 0 (− 0.21 to − 0.21) 0 (− 0.89 to − 0.89)
1-Nitropyrene—PAH − 0.06 − 0.22 0 (− 0.21 to − 0.21) 0 (− 0.89 to − 0.89) 0 (− 0.21 to − 0.21) 0 (− 0.89 to − 0.89)
Dibenzo(a,e)fluoranthene—PAH − 0.06 − 0.22 0 (− 0.21 to − 0.21) 0 (− 0.89 to − 0.89) 0 (− 0.21 to − 0.21) 0 (− 0.89 to − 0.89)
Dibenzo(a,h)pyrene—PAH − 0.06 − 0.22 0 (− 0.21 to − 0.21) 0 (− 0.89 to − 0.89) 0 (− 0.21 to − 0.21) 0 (− 0.89 to − 0.89)
Dibenzo(a,l)pyrene—PAH − 0.06 − 0.22 0 (− 0.21 to − 0.21) 0 (− 0.89 to − 0.89) 0 (− 0.21 to − 0.21) 0 (− 0.89 to − 0.89)
Dibenz(a,h)acridine—PAH − 0.06 − 0.22 0 (− 0.21 to − 0.02) 0 (− 0.89 to − 0.01) 0 (− 0.21 to − 0.02) 0 (− 0.89 to − 0.01)
Dibenzo(a,e)pyrene—PAH − 0.06 − 0.22 0 (− 0.21 to − 0.02) 0 (− 0.89 to − 0.01) 0 (− 0.21 to − 0.02) 0 (− 0.89 to − 0.01)
Anthracene − 0.06 − 0.22 0 (− 0.21 to − 0.03) 0 (− 0.89 to − 0.03) 0 (− 0.21 to − 0.19) 0 (− 0.89 to − 0.14)
Dibenz(a,j)acridine—PAH − 0.06 − 0.13 1 (− 0.21 to 0.55) 1 (− 0.89 to 0.59) 1 (− 0.21 to 0.54) 1 (− 0.89 to 0.58)
Sulphuric acid − 0.06 − 0.10 2 (− 0.21 to 0.52) 2 (− 0.89 to 0.56) 2 (− 0.50 to 0.54) 2 (− 0.89 to 0.58)
Ethylbenzene − 0.07 − 0.05 2 (− 0.71 to 0.46) 3 (− 0.74 to 0.55) 2 (− 0.37 to 0.69) 1 (− 0.47 to 0.49)
Dibenzo(a,h)anthracene—PAH − 0.07 − 0.14 2 (− 0.21 to 0.55) 2 (− 0.89 to 0.59) 2 (− 0.49 to 0.54) 2 (− 0.89 to 0.58)
Hydrochloric acid − 0.08 − 0.07 1 (− 0.01 to 0.49) 2 (− 0.32 to 0.61) 0 (− 0.50 to 0.39) 2 (− 0.71 to 0.49)
*High Density Livestock Operation − 0.08 − 0.08 0 (− 0.41 to 0.14) 0 (− 0.39 to 0.13) 0 (− 0.41 to 0.14) 0 (− 0.18 to 0.14)
Polymeric diphenylmethane diisocyanate − 0.09 − 0.10 1 (− 0.15 to 0.41) 1 (− 0.15 to 0.53) 1 (− 0.15 to 0.75) 0 (− 0.15 to 0.20)
7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene—PAH − 0.10 − 0.25 1 (− 0.21 to 0.48) 1 (− 0.89 to 0.43) 1 (− 0.49 to 0.51) 1 (− 0.89 to 0.45)
3-Methylcholanthrene—PAH − 0.10 − 0.25 1 (− 0.21 to 0.49) 1 (− 0.89 to 0.44) 1 (− 0.49 to 0.52) 1 (− 0.89 to 0.46)
*Power Line − 0.10 − 0.04 1 (− 0.84 to 0.41) 3 (− 0.31 to 0.67) 0 (− 0.86 to 0.26) 2 (− 0.31 to 0.53)
1,1,2-Trichloroethane − 0.10 − 0.08 0 (− 0.20 to − 0.20) 0 (− 0.20 to − 0.20) 0 (− 0.26 to − 0.01) 0 (− 0.29 to − 0.01)
HCFC-142b − 0.10 − 0.08 0 (− 0.20 to − 0.20) 0 (− 0.20 to − 0.20) 0 (− 0.26 to − 0.01) 0 (− 0.29 to − 0.01)
1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane − 0.10 − 0.08 0 (− 0.20 to − 0.20) 0 (− 0.20 to − 0.20) 0 (− 0.26 to − 0.01) 0 (− 0.29 to − 0.01)
Carbon tetrachloride − 0.10 − 0.08 0 (− 0.20 to − 0.20) 0 (− 0.20 to − 0.20) 0 (− 0.26 to − 0.01) 0 (− 0.29 to − 0.01)
Pentachloroethane − 0.10 − 0.08 0 (− 0.20 to − 0.20) 0 (− 0.20 to − 0.20) 0 (− 0.26 to − 0.01) 0 (− 0.29 to − 0.01)
Dicyclopentadiene − 0.10 − 0.08 0 (− 0.20 to 0.00) 0 (− 0.20 to − 0.01) 0 (− 0.26 to − 0.01) 0 (− 0.29 to − 0.01)
1,3-Butadiene − 0.10 − 0.08 0 (− 0.20 to 0.00) 0 (− 0.20 to − 0.01) 0 (− 0.26 to − 0.01) 0 (− 0.29 to − 0.01)
Chloroethane − 0.10 − 0.08 0 (− 0.20 to − 0.20) 0 (− 0.20 to − 0.20) 0 (− 0.28 to − 0.01) 0 (− 0.31 to − 0.01)
Chloroform − 0.10 − 0.08 0 (− 0.20 to − 0.20) 0 (− 0.20 to − 0.20) 0 (− 0.31 to − 0.01) 0 (− 0.31 to − 0.01)
Vinyl chloride − 0.10 − 0.08 0 (− 0.20 to − 0.20) 0 (− 0.20 to − 0.20) 0 (− 0.32 to − 0.01) 0 (− 0.34 to − 0.01)
Zinc (and its compounds) − 0.11 − 0.17 2 (− 0.19 to 0.54) 3 (− 0.86 to 0.58) 2 (− 0.50 to 0.54) 2 (− 0.86 to 0.59)
Arsenic (and its compounds) − 0.11 − 0.13 1 (− 0.18 to 0.55) 1 (− 0.32 to 0.59) 1 (− 0.50 to 0.52) 1 (− 0.71 to 0.57)
Tetrachloroethylene − 0.12 − 0.12 1 (0.42 to 0.42) 1 (0.47 to 0.47) 1 (− 0.24 to 0.41) 1 (− 0.27 to 0.46)
Dioxins and furans—total − 0.12 − 0.12 2 (− 0.10 to 0.66) 1 (− 0.32 to 0.70) 2 (− 0.50 to 0.67) 1 (− 0.71 to 0.71)
Nitrogen oxides (expressed as NO2) − 0.13 − 0.19 6 (− 0.26 to 0.90) 2 (− 0.83 to 0.61) 3 (− 0.27 to 0.91) 1 (− 0.83 to 0.48)
Chlorine dioxide − 0.13 − 0.15 1 (− 0.15 to 0.49) 1 (− 0.32 to 0.44) 1 (− 0.49 to 0.52) 1 (− 0.72 to 0.46)
Hexachlorobenzene − 0.13 − 0.14 2 (− 0.03 to 0.49) 2 (− 0.32 to 0.48) 2 (− 0.50 to 0.52) 2 (− 0.71 to 0.52)
*Socioeconomic Index − 0.14 − 0.14 0 (− 0.59 to 0.21) 0 (− 0.58 to 0.17) 0 (− 0.59 to 0.26) 0 (− 0.58 to 0.24)
1,2-Dichloroethane − 0.15 − 0.08 0 (− 0.42 to − 0.20) 0 (− 0.20 to 0.12) 0 (− 0.26 to − 0.01) 0 (− 0.29 to − 0.01)
Acetonitrile − 0.15 − 0.15 0 (0.13 to 0.13) 0 (0.18 to 0.18) 0 (0.08 to 0.15) 0 (0.14 to 0.15)
1,4-Dioxane − 0.15 − 0.08 0 (− 0.42 to − 0.20) 0 (− 0.20 to 0.12) 0 (− 0.30 to − 0.30) 0 (− 0.32 to − 0.32)
HCFC-22 − 0.15 − 0.08 0 (− 0.42 to − 0.20) 0 (− 0.20 to 0.12) 0 (− 0.30 to − 0.01) 0 (− 0.32 to − 0.01)
*Water body − 0.17 − 0.12 1 (− 0.62 to 0.49) 0 (− 0.55 to 0.14) 1 (− 0.70 to 0.49) 0 (− 0.63 to 0.22)
Phenol (and its salts) − 0.17 − 0.18 1 (− 0.13 to 0.41) 1 (− 0.10 to 0.53) 1 (− 0.18 to 0.75) 0 (− 0.19 to 0.20)
Triethylamine − 0.17 − 0.18 0 (0.06 to 0.06) 0 (0.11 to 0.11) 0 (0.02 to 0.15) 0 (0.07 to 0.15)
Acenaphthylene—PAH − 0.18 − 0.26 1 (− 0.21 to 0.49) 1 (− 0.89 to 0.44) 1 (− 0.49 to 0.52) 1 (− 0.89 to 0.46)
Nitrilotriacetic acid (and its salts) − 0.19 − 0.19 0 (− 0.35 to − 0.35) 0 (− 0.35 to − 0.35) 0 (− 0.40 to − 0.40) 0 (− 0.40 to − 0.40)
Mercury (and its compounds) − 0.19 − 0.21 0 (− 0.18 to 0.37) 1 (− 0.33 to 0.42) 0 (− 0.50 to 0.23) 0 (− 0.71 to 0.28)
Nitrate ion in solution at pH > = 6.0 − 0.19 − 0.19 0 (− 0.33 to − 0.33) 0 (− 0.31 to − 0.31) 0 (− 0.38 to − 0.38) 0 (− 0.37 to − 0.37)
Nitric acid − 0.19 − 0.19 0 (− 0.34 to − 0.34) 0 (− 0.34 to − 0.34) 0 (− 0.40 to − 0.40) 0 (− 0.39 to − 0.39)
Selenium (and its compounds) − 0.19 − 0.21 1 (− 0.06 to 0.56) 1 (− 0.43 to 0.61) 1 (− 0.16 to 0.53) 1 (− 0.67 to 0.58)
Silver (and its compounds) − 0.20 − 0.20 0 (− 0.36 to − 0.36) 0 (− 0.35 to − 0.35) 0 (− 0.42 to − 0.42) 0 (− 0.41 to − 0.41)
Antimony (and its compounds) − 0.20 − 0.20 0 (− 0.37 to − 0.37) 0 (− 0.36 to − 0.36) 0 (− 0.42 to − 0.18) 0 (− 0.41 to − 0.13)
Cadmium (and its compounds) − 0.20 − 0.21 3 (− 0.09 to 0.53) 2 (− 0.03 to 0.60) 1 (− 0.34 to 0.44) 2 (− 0.66 to 0.49)
Copper (and its compounds) − 0.20 − 0.23 1 (− 0.18 to 0.62) 2 (− 0.34 to 0.65) 1 (− 0.21 to 0.61) 1 (− 0.35 to 0.64)
*Wildfire − 0.24 − 0.28 1 (− 0.35 to 0.57) 0 (− 0.64 to 0.39) 3 (− 0.47 to 0.57) 1 (− 0.71 to 0.75)
Cobalt (and its compounds) − 0.30 − 0.39 0 (− 0.43 to − 0.03) 1 (− 0.88 to 0.46) 0 (− 0.42 to − 0.11) 0 (− 0.88 to 0.00)
*Cultivated Land − 0.47 − 0.41 0 (− 0.33 to 0.17) 1 (− 0.34 to 0.49) 1 (− 0.61 to 0.81) 2 (− 0.62 to 0.54)
*Oil/Gas Wellpad − 0.53 − 0.49 0 (− 0.45 to 0.31) 0 (− 0.34 to 0.33) 2 (− 0.81 to 0.80) 2 (− 0.74 to 0.79)
*Vegetation − 0.56 − 0.48 2 (− 0.50 to 0.80) 3 (− 0.52 to 0.48) 1 (− 0.48 to 0.83) 3 (− 0.52 to 0.58)
  1. In the right half of the table, the count of units exceeding rho > 0.40 and the range are shown for the data aggregated by health regions and airshed zones. Variables having a rho > 0.4 for the province or for 4 or more sub-provincial units are indicated by bold font