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Table 2 Unadjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of macro-level demographic and environmental factors and increased odds of legionellosis occurrence

From: Analysis of population-level determinants of legionellosis: spatial and geovisual methods for enhancing classification of high-risk areas

  Incidence ratea Standard clusterb Reliable, high-risk clusterc
OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
% ≥ 65 years of age
 < 10    
 ≥ 10 to < 15 1.10 0.88–1.37 0.60 0.440.81 0.45 0.300.67
 ≥ 15 0.84 0.66–1.07 0.49 0.350.69 0.33 0.200.53
% non-white race
 < 10    
 ≥ 10 to < 50 1.00 0.79–1.26 0.81 0.57–1.17 0.89 0.54–1.47
 ≥ 50 1.67 1.282.17 2.67 1.863.83 3.07 1.875.02
% hispanic ethnicity
 < 5    
 ≥ 5 to < 20 1.19 0.96–1.48 0.66 0.490.88 1.05 0.70–1.58
 ≥ 20 1.08 0.84–1.39 0.47 0.320.67 0.78 0.47–1.28
% poverty
 < 5    
 ≥ 5 to < 15 1.34 1.091.65 1.87 1.342.62 1.40 0.86–2.25
 ≥ 15 1.49 1.171.90 3.78 2.685.32 5.04 3.247.84
% less or some high school
 < 5    
 ≥ 5 to < 10 1.24 0.99–1.55 1.22 0.85–1.75 1.52 0.92–2.48
 ≥ 10 1.30 1.041.62 2.35 1.703.25 2.70 1.724.25
% homes built pre-1950
 < 5    
 ≥ 5 to < 20 1.45 1.171.80 4.93 3.028.06 4.08 2.247.43
 ≥ 20 1.48 1.131.92 9.93 5.9716.50 6.58 3.5012.35
% homes built pre-1970
 < 15    
 ≥ 15 to < 35 1.58 1.252.00 2.22 1.453.40 1.72 1.022.91
 ≥ 35 1.78 1.322.42 5.33 3.358.49 3.94 2.217.04
% renter occupied
 < 10    
 ≥ 10 to < 55 1.06 0.84–1.34 1.41 0.96–2.09 1.50 0.86–2.61
 ≥ 55 1.40 1.081.82 2.97 2.004.42 4.02 2.317.00
% vacant housing
 < 5    
 ≥ 5 to < 10 0.85 0.69–1.04 1.42 1.041.95 1.81 1.162.82
 ≥ 10 1.22 0.96–1.56 2.54 1.823.55 3.58 2.275.66
Primary water sourced
 Groundwater    
 Surface water 0.77 0.60–1.00 0.80 0.56–1.15 0.90 0.56–1.45
  1. Missing values were excluded from analysis
  2. Values in italics are statistically significantly at a significance level of 5%
  3. Ecological study design at the census tract level
  4. aAge- and sex-adjusted incidence greater or equal to 2 cases per 100,000 persons
  5. bSignificant cluster with 50% of population at risk, relative risk greater or equal to 2 cases per 100,000 persons
  6. cExposed census tracts defined as RR > 2 and reliability score > 0.5
  7. dPopulation-weighted centroids of census tracts were joined with public water system polygons