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Table 2 Geospatial resource availability and precision for 183 countries

From: A cross-sectional ecological analysis of international and sub-national health inequalities in commercial geospatial resource availability

Availability and precision of geospatial data resources No of countries (%)
Geocoding
ESRI
 Level 1: address searches likely to result in either precise coordinates or interpolated location along street for address 42 (23.0%)
 Level 2: address searches often result in precise coordinates or interpolated location along street, but sometimes street-level coordinates or coarser 16 (8.7%)
 Level 3: address searches sometimes result in precise coordinates or interpolated location along street, but more often street-level coordinates or coarser 51 (27.9%)
 Level 4: address searches result in imprecise locations, e.g. centroids of higher-level administrative boundaries 74 (40.4%)
Pitney Bowes Geocoding (highest precision available)
 Precise address point geocoding 20 (10.9%)
 Address geocoding 39 (21.3%)
 Street-level geocoding 60 (32.8%)
 Post code 34 (18.6%)
 Administrative boundaries or place-names 29 (15.8%)
 Not specified 1 (0.5%)
TomTom geocoding (highest precision available)
 Address point 42 (23.0%)
 Interpolated address 20 (10.9%)
 Street-level 77 (42.1%)
 Locality 44 (24.0%)
MapBox geocoding (highest precision available)
 Address geocoding 25 (13.7%)
 Postcode 20 (10.9%)
 Place-name 60 (32.8%)
 No service 79 (42.6%)
Loqate geocoding
 Premises—point 52 (28.4%)
 Premises 44 (24.0%)
 Thoroughfare 68 (37.2%)
 Locality 19 (10.4%)
Patient travel
ESRI/HERE travel times
 Predictive traffic: comprehensive street data with live, historic, and predictive traffic 11 (6.0%)
 Live traffic: comprehensive street data with live and historic traffic 40 (21.9%)
 Historical traffic: comprehensive street data with historic traffic only 20 (10.9%)
 Posted speed limits: comprehensive street data but with time-invariant travel times derived from speed limits 15 (8.2%)
 Limited street coverage: partial street data for major roads only without minor or secondary roads; time-invariant travel times derived from speed limits 73 (39.9%)
 Minimal street coverage: partial street data for some major roads only; no ground verification of network; no speed limit data 24 (13.1%)
Google travel times—traffic
 Traffic layer—available with good data quality and availability 91 (49.7%)
 Traffic layer—available with approximate data quality or availability 1 (0.5%)
 Traffic layer not available 91 (49.7%)
Google travel times—speed limits
 Speed limits—available with good data quality and availability 11 (6.0%)
 Speed limits—available with approximate data quality or availability 166 (90.7%)
 Speed limits not available 6 (3.3%)
Google travel times—cycling
 Cycling directions available 21 (11.5%)
 Cycling directions unavailable 162 (88.5%)
iGeolise TravelTime Platform
 Travel times for public transport and driving 23 (12.6%)
 Travel times for driving only 3 (1.6%)
 Travel times unavailable 157 (85.8%)
TomTom
 Online routing with traffic incidents and traffic flows 42 (23.0%)
 Online routing with traffic flows only 15 (8.2%)
 Online routing without traffic 57 (31.1%)
 No online routing 69 (37.7%)
MapBox
 Traffic layer available 33 (18.0%)
 Traffic layer unavailable 150 (82.0%)
Neighbourhood characterisation
Michael Bauer neighbourhood statistics
 Number of areal attribute groups per country—global mean (5th centile; 95th centile) 4 (0; 9)
 Mean population per areal unit by country—global median (5th centile; 95th centile) 130,000 (411; 23,801,400)
Mosaic Global
Geodemographic classification available 24 (13.1%)
Geodemographic classification unavailable 159 (86.9%)
Cameo worldwide
Geodemographic classification available 39 (21.3%)
Geodemographic classification unavailable 144 (78.7%)
Maptitude
Demographic data (beyond population headcounts) available 13 (7.1%)
Demographic data (beyond population headcounts) unavailable 170 (92.9%)