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Table 3 Presence of items on general characteristics along actual cycling routes compared to shortest cycling routes

From: Differences in physical environmental characteristics between adolescents’ actual and shortest cycling routes: a study using a Google Street View-based audit

Item Actual cycling route (m/km; M ± SD) Shortest cycling route (m/km; M ± SD) OR (95% CI)
Road type
 Walking/cycling road 89 ± 99 62 ± 111 1.29 (0.82; 2.03)
 One road for one-direction traffic 120 ± 168 56 ± 107 1.43 (0.97; 2.11)t
 One road not divided into lanes 259 ± 232 160 ± 195 1.25 (0.99; 1.57)t
 One road divided in one lane each direction 82 ± 125 123 ± 199 0.86 (0.64; 1.15)
 Two roads divided in one lane each direction 21 ± 58 7 ± 24 2.44 (0.63; 9.41)
 Two roads divided in two lanes each direction 14 ± 46 130 ± 245 0.53 (0.28; 0.99)*
Speed limit
 30 km/h 145 ± 185 58 ± 131 1.50 (1.02; 2.21)*
 50 km/h 309 ± 261 316 ± 255 0.99 (0.83; 1.18)
 70 km/h or more 43 ± 87 106 ± 225 0.78 (0.57; 1.08)
Traffic calming measures 248 ± 222 344 ± 304 0.87 (0.73; 1.04)
Amount of side streets 13 ± 11 11 ± 10 1.02 (0.98; 1.07)
Amount of intersections 2 ± 2 3 ± 3 0.90 (0.75; 1.09)
Crossing aids 372 ± 247 414 ± 310 0.95 (0.80; 1.12)
Poor visibility when crossing a street 23 ± 54 4 ± 16 4.85 (0.80; 29.52)t
Well-maintained street segment 548 ± 267 531 ± 282 1.02 (0.86; 1.21)
Streetlights 522 ± 265 536 ± 290 0.98 (0.83; 1.16)
Parking facilities
 On street parking facilities 180 ± 173 122 ± 156 1.25 (0.93; 1.68)
 Parking facilities next to the street 210 ± 206 321 ± 297 0.84 (0.69; 1.02)t
 Parking facilities on adjacent parking 18 ± 62 3 ± 15 2.98 (0.44; 20.35)
 No parking facilities 88 ± 193 33 ± 55 1.45 (0.86; 2.44)
Slope
 Flat 546 ± 266 499 ± 297 1.06 (0.90; 1.25)
 Gentle to moderate slope 39 ± 62 41 ± 105 0.97 (0.56; 1.66)
Swerving alternatives 407 ± 254 353 ± 266 1.08 (0.91; 1.30)
Buildings
 No buildings with windows on street side 47 ± 182 30 ± 82 1.10 (0.78; 1.55)
 Few buildings with windows on street side 58 ± 78 22 ± 45 2.92 (1.12; 7.63)*
Many buildings with windows on street side 391 ± 248 427 ± 293 0.95 (0.80; 1.13)
Driveways
 No driveways 54 ± 136 65 ± 105 0.93 (0.63; 1.37)
 Approx. 25% of buildings have one driveway 181 ± 207 167 ± 238 1.03 (0.84; 1.27)
 Approx. 50% of buildings have one driveway 17 ± 29 35 ± 88 0.61 (0.25; 1.51)
 Most buildings have one driveway 244 ± 247 213 ± 259 1.05 (0.88; 1.26)
Garages
 No garages 228 ± 240 187 ± 175 1.10 (0.88; 1.38)
 Approx. 25% of buildings have one garage 252 ± 228 270 ± 273 0.97 (0.81; 1.17)
 Approx. 50% of buildings or more have one garage 17 ± 32 22 ± 47 0.72 (0.22; 2.32)
  1. Reference = shortest cycling route. Results regarding ‘one road divided in two lanes each direction’ (road type) are not shown since this road type did not appear along the routes. For ease of interpretation of OR, distances were converted to hectometres (100 m/km)
  2. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval
  3. *p ≤ 0.05; **p ≤ 0.01; tp ≤ 0.1