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Table 5 Results of multivariate regression models showing only significant correlates of CIM (n = 20 studies)

From: Social and physical environmental correlates of independent mobility in children: a systematic review taking sex/gender differences into account

Study source Socio-demographic and psychosocial characteristics Social environment Physical environment
Alparone et al. [25] Age, birth order fear of strangers
Perception of positive potentiality of outdoor autonomy
n. s.
Buliung et al. [32] (to school) Age,sex/gender
Flexible work schedule
Neighborhood safety Distance
Traffic
Buliung et al. [32] (from school) Age, sex/gender,
Flexible work schedule, fathers’ employment status
Neighborhood safety Traffic
Christian et al. [49] Age, older siblings Neighborhood safety
Social norms
n. s.
Cordovil et al. [23] Age Mobility license Car ownership
Distance
Fyhri et al. [62] Age, sex/gender Neighborhood safety
Fear of strangers
Parents car use frequency
Distance
Janssen et al. [63] Age Neighborhood safety
Fear of crime
n. s.
Johannson [56] CIM license Age, maturity, siblings Neighborhood safety
Traffic perception
Need to protect
n. s.
Johannson [56] CIM range Age, maturity, siblings Attitude towards CIM Car ownership
Traffic
Kytta [16] (Finnish data) n. s. Mobility license Urbanization
Kytta [64] (Belrushian data) Sex/gender n. s. Urbanization
Lam and Loo [50] Age
Household income, family structure, mothers’ employment status, domestic helpers at home
n. s. Distance
Urbanization
School density
Lin et al. [57] Siblings n.s. Car ownership
Distance
Mammen et al. [26] Age
Language spoken at home
Fear of strangers
Traffic perception
Car ownership
Distance
Prezza et al. [12] Age, sex/gender Neighborhood Friendliness Park accessibility
Urban structure
Courtyard
Santos et al. [59]a n. r. Neighborhood safety
Parents’ physical activity
 
Veitch et al. [60]b school Child enjoys walking child’s personal safety Walking facilities
Veitch et al. [60]b local destinations n. s. Many other children with in the neighborhood n.s.
Wolfe and McDonald [61] Age, race Neighborhood safety Housing unit density
Multivariate regressions models with separate results for boys and girls
 Carver et al. [52]d girls n. r. Parent encouragement for walking Street connectivity
Land use mix
 Carver et al. [52]d boys n. r. Parental rules towards outdoor play Car ownership
 Foster et al. [36] girls n. r. Fear of strangers
Informal social control
n. r.
 Foster et al. [36] boys n. r. Fear of strangers n. r.
 Ghekiere et al. [35] girls Grade
Cycle skills
Traffic skills
n. s. traffic
 Ghekiere et al. [35] boys Grade
Cycle skills
Traffic skills
n. s. n. s.
 Villanueva et al. [35]e girls Child’s confidence Neighborhood safety
Traffic perception
Confidence in child’s ability
Bike ownership
School-specific walkability
 Villanueva et al. [48]e boys Child’s confidence Neighborhood friendliness
Traffic perception
confidence in child’s ability
Distance to green space
Count of shopping centers, recreation venues, community services and retail shops
Park attractiveness
 Villlanueva et al. [48]e girls Child’s confidence Neighborhood safety
People on walks in the neighborhood
Confidence in child’s ability
Bike ownership
School-specific walkability
 Villlanueva et al. [48]e boys Child’s confidence Neighborhood safety
Many other children with in the neighborhood
Traffic perception
confidence in child’s ability
 
  1. Abbreviations: CIM children’s independent mobility, n. r. not reported, n. s. not significant
  2. aAdjusted for child’s age and gender
  3. bControlled for sex and age of child, urban/rural location, maternal education and employment, distance to school, whether the child changed school between T1 and T2, and clustering within suburbs
  4. cControlled for sex and age of child, urban/rural location, maternal education and employment, and clustering within suburbs
  5. dControlled for parental education level, distance from home to school, urban/rural
  6. eAdjusted for socio-economic status, age, maternal education, child’s school year, whether or not child was sick last week, school clustering