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Table 5 Results of multivariate regression models showing only significant correlates of CIM (n = 20 studies)

From: Social and physical environmental correlates of independent mobility in children: a systematic review taking sex/gender differences into account

Study source Socio-demographic and psychosocial characteristics Social environment Physical environment
Alparone et al. [25] Age, birth order fear of strangers Perception of positive potentiality of outdoor autonomy n. s.
Buliung et al. [32] (to school) Age,sex/gender Flexible work schedule Neighborhood safety Distance Traffic
Buliung et al. [32] (from school) Age, sex/gender, Flexible work schedule, fathers’ employment status Neighborhood safety Traffic
Christian et al. [49] Age, older siblings Neighborhood safety Social norms n. s.
Cordovil et al. [23] Age Mobility license Car ownership Distance
Fyhri et al. [62] Age, sex/gender Neighborhood safety Fear of strangers Parents car use frequency Distance
Janssen et al. [63] Age Neighborhood safety Fear of crime n. s.
Johannson [56] CIM license Age, maturity, siblings Neighborhood safety Traffic perception Need to protect n. s.
Johannson [56] CIM range Age, maturity, siblings Attitude towards CIM Car ownership Traffic
Kytta [16] (Finnish data) n. s. Mobility license Urbanization
Kytta [64] (Belrushian data) Sex/gender n. s. Urbanization
Lam and Loo [50] Age Household income, family structure, mothers’ employment status, domestic helpers at home n. s. Distance Urbanization School density
Lin et al. [57] Siblings n.s. Car ownership Distance
Mammen et al. [26] Age Language spoken at home Fear of strangers Traffic perception Car ownership Distance
Prezza et al. [12] Age, sex/gender Neighborhood Friendliness Park accessibility Urban structure Courtyard
Santos et al. [59]a n. r. Neighborhood safety Parents’ physical activity  
Veitch et al. [60]b school Child enjoys walking child’s personal safety Walking facilities
Veitch et al. [60]b local destinations n. s. Many other children with in the neighborhood n.s.
Wolfe and McDonald [61] Age, race Neighborhood safety Housing unit density
Multivariate regressions models with separate results for boys and girls
 Carver et al. [52]d girls n. r. Parent encouragement for walking Street connectivity Land use mix
 Carver et al. [52]d boys n. r. Parental rules towards outdoor play Car ownership
 Foster et al. [36] girls n. r. Fear of strangers Informal social control n. r.
 Foster et al. [36] boys n. r. Fear of strangers n. r.
 Ghekiere et al. [35] girls Grade Cycle skills Traffic skills n. s. traffic
 Ghekiere et al. [35] boys Grade Cycle skills Traffic skills n. s. n. s.
 Villanueva et al. [35]e girls Child’s confidence Neighborhood safety Traffic perception Confidence in child’s ability Bike ownership School-specific walkability
 Villanueva et al. [48]e boys Child’s confidence Neighborhood friendliness Traffic perception confidence in child’s ability Distance to green space Count of shopping centers, recreation venues, community services and retail shops Park attractiveness
 Villlanueva et al. [48]e girls Child’s confidence Neighborhood safety People on walks in the neighborhood Confidence in child’s ability Bike ownership School-specific walkability
 Villlanueva et al. [48]e boys Child’s confidence Neighborhood safety Many other children with in the neighborhood Traffic perception confidence in child’s ability  
  1. Abbreviations: CIM children’s independent mobility, n. r. not reported, n. s. not significant
  2. aAdjusted for child’s age and gender
  3. bControlled for sex and age of child, urban/rural location, maternal education and employment, distance to school, whether the child changed school between T1 and T2, and clustering within suburbs
  4. cControlled for sex and age of child, urban/rural location, maternal education and employment, and clustering within suburbs
  5. dControlled for parental education level, distance from home to school, urban/rural
  6. eAdjusted for socio-economic status, age, maternal education, child’s school year, whether or not child was sick last week, school clustering