Skip to main content

Table 1 Validity of GigaPan® and Google Earth technology in comparison to direct observation for all land use categories for street segments in Pittsburgh, PA

From: Validity of environmental audits using GigaPan® and Google Earth Technology

Variable N Prevalencea GigaPan® versus direct observation Google Earth versus direct observation
Sensitivity 95% CI Specificity 95% CI Sensitivity 95% CI Specificity 95% CI
Housing detached 459 54.0 80.2 (74.7, 85.0) 81.0 (75.1, 86.1) 89.5 (85.0, 93.0) 79.6 (73.5, 84.8)
Housing attached 461 32.5 35.3 (27.7, 43.5) 92.3 (88.7, 95.0) 52.7 (44.4, 60.9) 87.5 (83.3, 90.9)
Institutional 462 19.7 44.0 (33.6, 54.8) 98.9 (97.3, 99.7) 71.4 (61.0, 80.4) 96.2 (93.7, 97.9)
Service 463 17.5 39.5 (28.8, 51.0) 97.9 (95.9, 99.1) 39.5 (28.8, 51.0) 95.8 (93.3, 97.6)
Public/civic 459 6.3 0 06.9 (00.8, 22.8) 98.8 (97.3, 99.6) 37.9 (20.7, 57.7) 98.6 (97.0, 99.5)
Restaurants total 464 3.9 50.0 (26.0, 74.0) 99.6 (98.4, 99.9) 55.6 (30.8, 78.5) 98.0 (96.2, 99.1)
Churches total 464 9.3 30.2 (17.2, 46.1) 97.1 (95.1, 98.5) 67.4 (51.5, 80.9) 97.1 (95.1, 98.5)
Car repair shop 464 1.7 50.0 (15.7, 84.3) 98.7 (97.2, 99.5) 37.5 (08.5, 75.5) 97.6 (95.7, 98.8)
Bars total 464 1.9 11.1 (00.3, 48.2) 99.6 (98.4, 99.9) 22.2 (02.8, 60.0) 98.7 (97.2, 99.5)
Retail 461 9.3 34.9 (21.0, 50.9) 94.7 (92.1, 96.7) 60.5 (44.4, 75.0) 94.0 (91.3, 96.1)
Standalone court 460 1.5 14.3 (00.4, 57.9) 99.3 (98.1, 99.9) 42.9 (09.9, 81.6) 100 (99.2, 100)
Bars on windows 458 33.6 22.1 (15.8, 29.5) 97.7 (95.3, 99.1) 51.3 (43.1, 59.4) 85.5 (81.1, 89.3)
Broken/Boardb windows 462 34.0 30.6 (23.5, 38.4) 94.8 (91.6, 97.0) 59.2 (51.1, 67.0) 84.9 (80.4, 88.7)
  1. Non-overlapping 95% confidence intervals for GigaPan® and Google Earth sensitivity/specificity are in italic
  2. CI confidence interval
  3. aPercentage of segments with attribute, as determined by direct observation audit
  4. bBroken or boarded up windows