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Table 1 Description of variables used in this study

From: Continuities and changes in spatial patterns of under-five mortality at the district level in India (1991–2011)

Under-five mortality rate (5q0) Probability of dying between birth and the exact age of 5
Female literacy Percentage of women aged 15–49 in the district who are literate
Female labor force participation rate Percentage of women aged 15–59 in the district who are currently at work
Female scheduled caste and tribe Percentage of women belonging to a scheduled caste or scheduled tribe in the district
Access to sanitation facilities Percentage of households in the district with access to toilet facilities
Access to safe water Percentage of households in the district with access to safe water from tap, hand pump and tube well (treated and untreated)
Road infrastructure Percentage of villages in the district approached by pucca (paved) roads
Access to medical facilities Percentage of villages in the district having medical facilities
Urbanization Percentage of the population in each district living in urban areas
Access to electricity Percentage of households in each district with access to electricity