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Table 3 OLS regression estimates for under-five mortality rate at the district level, in the 1991 and 2011 censuses

From: Continuities and changes in spatial patterns of under-five mortality at the district level in India (1991–2011)

  1991 2011
Estimate Std. error t-value p value vif Estimate Std. error t-value p value vif
(Intercept) 172.54 6.56 26.28 0.00***   138.78 7.35 18.88 0.00***  
Female literacy − 1.08 0.11 − 9.80 0.00*** 2.09 − 0.69 0.10 − 6.99 0.00*** 2.79
Female labor force participation rate − 0.34 0.09 − 3.67 0.00*** 1.67 − 0.21 0.08 − 2.75 0.01** 1.93
Female scheduled caste and tribe 0.16 0.08 2.11 0.04* 1.54 0.27 0.04 6.06 0.00*** 1.69
Access to sanitation facilities 0.07 0.08 0.80 0.43 1.56 − 0.13 0.05 − 2.61 0.01** 2.89
Access to safe water − 0.18 0.07 − 2.54 0.01* 1.34 0.05 0.04 1.17 0.24 1.34
Road infrastructure − 0.33 0.07 − 4.57 0.00*** 2.09 − 0.04 0.03 − 1.32 0.19 1.56
Access to medical facilities − 0.03 0.05 − 0.65 0.52 1.57 − 0.09 0.04 − 2.49 0.01* 1.54
Urbanization − 0.21 0.10 − 2.15 0.03* 1.53 0.18 0.05 3.45 0.00*** 1.93
Access to electricity 0.03 0.08 0.44 0.66 2.18 − 0.18 0.04 − 3.89 0.00*** 3.10
R2 0.46      0.52     
AICc 4296.81      3735.52     
  1. vif is variance inflation factor, which quantifies the severity of multicollinearity in an ordinary least squares regression analysis
  2. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001