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Table 5 OLS regression estimates for under-five mortality rate in each cluster, 1991 and 2011

From: Continuities and changes in spatial patterns of under-five mortality at the district level in India (1991–2011)

  1991 2011
Estimate Std. Error t-value p value Estimate Std. Error t-value p value
Cluster 1
(Intercept) 111.22 12.12 9.17 0.00*** 110.89 13.33 8.32 0.00***
Female literacy − 0.43 0.15 − 2.79 0.01** − 0.51 0.18 − 2.84 0.01**
Female labor force participation rate − 0.10 0.13 − 0.77 0.45 − 0.08 0.12 − 0.70 0.48
Female scheduled caste and tribe 0.57 0.16 3.46 0.00*** 0.36 0.11 3.29 0.00**
Access to sanitation facilities 0.27 0.11 2.33 0.02* − 0.04 0.09 − 0.46 0.65
Access to safe water 0.17 0.10 1.63 0.11 0.20 0.08 2.43 0.02*
Road infrastructure − 0.32 0.10 − 3.29 0.00** − 0.08 0.07 − 1.19 0.24
Access to medical facilities 0.04 0.08 0.50 0.62 − 0.11 0.06 − 1.84 0.07
Urbanization − 0.29 0.13 − 2.29 0.02* 0.05 0.09 0.56 0.58
Access to electricity − 0.27 0.13 − 2.16 0.03* − 0.15 0.13 − 1.12 0.26
Adjusted R2   0.56    0.62    
Cluster 2
(Intercept) 250.72 16.46 15.23 0.00*** 150.95 22.34 6.76 0.00***
Female literacy − 0.43 0.38 − 1.14 0.26 − 0.26 0.27 − 0.94 0.35
Female labor force participation rate − 0.53 0.25 − 2.10 0.04* − 0.64 0.24 − 2.70 0.01**
Female scheduled caste and tribe − 0.05 0.26 − 0.19 0.85 0.29 0.17 1.74 0.09
Access to sanitation facilities − 0.39 0.63 − 0.62 0.54 − 0.51 0.25 − 2.05 0.04*
Access to safe water − 0.46 0.24 − 1.94 0.06 − 0.25 0.18 − 1.36 0.18
Road infrastructure − 0.96 0.28 − 3.39 0.00** 0.09 0.11 0.77 0.44
Access to medical facilities − 0.32 0.12 − 2.61 0.01* 0.05 0.10 0.49 0.62
Urbanization − 0.20 0.30 − 0.67 0.50 0.16 0.20 0.79 0.44
Access to electricity − 0.11 0.30 − 0.38 0.71 − 0.13 0.13 − 1.01 0.32
Adjusted R2   0.62    0.52    
Cluster 3
(Intercept) 193.58 29.97 6.46 0.00*** 176.84 23.57 7.50 0.00***
Female literacy − 1.95 0.49 − 4.01 0.00*** − 0.71 0.34 − 2.11 0.04*
Female labor force participation rate − 0.92 0.42 − 2.19 0.03* − 0.41 0.38 − 1.07 0.29
Female scheduled caste and tribe 0.33 0.26 1.28 0.21 0.38 0.18 2.19 0.03*
Access to sanitation facilities 0.52 0.27 1.92 0.06 − 0.71 0.22 − 3.22 0.00**
Access to safe water 0.43 0.26 1.68 0.10 − 0.04 0.13 − 0.34 0.74
Road infrastructure − 0.63 0.47 − 1.32 0.19 0.26 0.16 1.64 0.11
Access to medical facilities 0.32 0.43 0.74 0.47 0.01 0.18 0.08 0.93
Urbanization 0.53 0.58 0.93 0.36 0.24 0.29 0.85 0.40
Access to electricity − 0.91 0.49 − 1.84 0.07 − 0.23 0.22 − 1.06 0.30
Adjusted R2   0.49    0.43    
Cluster 4
(Intercept) 157.54 13.22 11.92 0.00*** 189.43 25.18 7.52 0.00***
Female literacy − 1.21 0.21 − 5.7 0.00*** − 0.70 0.27 − 2.58 0.01*
Female labor force participation rate − 0.28 0.13 − 2.23 0.03* − 0.61 0.15 − 3.95 0.00***
Female scheduled caste and tribe 0.33 0.12 2.63 0.01* 0.14 0.10 1.46 0.15
Access to sanitation facilities 0.07 0.12 0.62 0.54 0.12 0.13 0.91 0.36
Access to safe water 0.10 0.13 0.74 0.46 − 0.25 0.20 − 1.25 0.21
Road infrastructure − 0.40 0.08 − 4.93 0.00*** 0.06 − 0.75 0.45  
Access to medical facilities 0.03 0.07 0.46 0.64 − 0.13 0.09 − 1.52 0.13
Urbanization − 0.10 0.11 − 0.93 0.36 0.14 0.08 1.71 0.09
Access to electricity − 0.10 0.13 − 0.74 0.46 − 0.43 0.11 − 3.93 0.00***
Adjusted R2   0.71    0.62    
Cluster 5
(Intercept) 188.44 36.76 5.13 0.00*** 193.82 41.53 4.67 0.00***
Female literacy − 2.46 0.72 − 3.42 0.00** − 0.80 0.42 − 1.89 0.07
Female labor force participation rate 0.87 0.6 1.45 0.15 0.81 0.48 1.67 0.10
Female scheduled caste and tribe − 0.63 0.42 − 1.5 0.14 − 0.62 0.33 − 1.85 0.07
Access to sanitation facilities − 1.31 0.76 − 1.72 0.09 − 0.46 0.30 − 1.53 0.13
Access to safe water − 0.84 0.25 − 3.39 0.00** − 0.48 0.30 − 1.62 0.11
Road infrastructure 0.64 0.48 1.34 0.19 − 0.04 0.09 − 0.50 0.62
Access to medical facilities − 0.06 0.12 − 0.49 0.62 0.02 0.08 0.30 0.77
Urbanization 0.68 0.52 1.32 0.20 0.24 0.23 1.02 0.31
Access to electricity 1.04 0.38 2.74 0.01** 0.21 0.16 1.28 0.21
Adjusted R2   0.54    0.26    
Cluster 6
(Intercept) 132.81 16.97 7.82 0.00*** 69.79 23.36 2.99 0.00**
Female literacy 0.24 0.42 0.58 0.57 0.29 0.34 0.85 0.40
Female labor force participation rate − 0.92 0.35 − 2.62 0.01* 1.02 0.34 3.02 0.00**
Female scheduled caste and tribe 0.28 0.23 1.22 0.23 0.00 0.13 − 0.03 0.98
Access to sanitation facilities − 1.09 0.50 − 2.19 0.03* − 0.35 0.17 − 2.02 0.05*
Access to safe water 0.00 0.15 − 0.02 0.99 0.04 0.12 0.32 0.75
Road infrastructure 0.75 0.29 2.56 0.01* 0.10 0.09 1.15 0.26
Access to medical facilities − 1.03 0.33 − 3.14 0.00** − 0.29 0.11 − 2.64 0.01*
Urbanization − 0.30 0.34 − 0.90 0.37 0.32 0.14 2.30 0.03*
Access to electricity − 0.11 0.39 − 0.28 0.78 − 0.40 0.17 − 2.41 0.02*
Adjusted R2   0.45     0.53   
  1. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001