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Table 1 List of studies reviewed on geographic variation in CMRFs

From: Geographic and area-level socioeconomic variation in cardiometabolic risk factor distribution: a systematic review of the literature

  First author
Age group
Geographic units
CMRFsa (data source) Outcome
1 Lawlor et al.
UK [19]
4286 (women)
60–79 years
4 regions within country
HT, BMI, LDL, TC (data collected) Geographic variation
2 Barker et al.
USA [20]
813,498 DM
≥18 years
644 counties in proximity
DM prevalence ≥ 11.0%, (behavioral risk factor surveillance) Geographic diabetic belt
3 Valdes et al.
Spain [18]
5103 adults
≥ 18 years
2 region within country
BP, BMI, FPG,TC, WC ( study) Geographic coherence
4 Astell-Burt et al.
Australia [37]
114,755 adults
≥ 45 years
~ 40 local government areas (2011 significant urban boundary)
DM (the 45 and up study) Geographic variation
5 Zhou et al.
China [17]
98,058 adults
> 18 years
Cross-sectional multilevel
31 provinces in country
DM (National Health Survey) Geographic variation
6 Paquet et al.
AU-France [16]
Au: 3893 (≥ 18 years)
Fr: 6430 (30–79 years)
Cross-sectional multilevel
Au: 767 CDs (SS, POA, SLA LGA). Fr: 1866 IRIS (TRIRIS, Municipalities)
BP,BMI,WC,FG,HbA1c,HR, TC,HDL, TG, (Au: NWAHS study, Fr: RECORD cohort study) Geographic clustering
7 Alkerwi et al.
Luxemberg [15]
1432 subjects
18–69 years.
Cross-sectional multilevel
106 municipalities (12 cantons)
BMI, FPG,TC, GFR (ORISCAV-LUX national survey) Geographic variation
8 Oh et al.
South Korea [13]
228,921 people
≥ 19 years
230 administrative districts
HT, DM (Korean Community Health Surveys) Geographic clustering
  1. AU Australia, CD census collection district, POA postal area, SLA statistical local area, LGA local government area, IRIS Ilôts regroupés pour l’information statistique, TRIRIS groups of around three IRIS areas, BP blood pressure, BMI body mass index, DM diabetes mellitus, FBG fasting plasma glucose, FPG fasting glucose, HbA1c glycated haemoglobin, HR heart rate, HT hypertension, TC total cholesterol; TG triglycerides, LDL low density lipoprotein, GFR glomerular filtration rate, WC waist circumference
  2. aBehavioural risk factors excluded