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Table 2 List of studies reviewed on the association of area-level deprivation and cardiometabolic risk prevalence

From: Geographic and area-level socioeconomic variation in cardiometabolic risk factor distribution: a systematic review of the literature

  First author
Age group
Spatial unit
CMRFs* (data source) Proxies of ASED (data source) Association
1 Bonney et al.
Australia [26]
91,776 adults
55.2 ± 15.66
Cross-sectional higherarchical
631 census collection districts
BMI (the SIMLR study) Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage (Australian Census 2006) +ve (women)
2 Unger et al.
USA [27]
5805 adults
45–84 years
Prospective cohort higherarchical
Census tract level
BMI, BP, BS, TC- CVH score (The MESA study) Neighbourhood SES (constructed summary score) +ve
3 Maier et al.
Germany [29]
33,690 adults
< 30 years
Cross-sectional design
412 districts
T2DM, obesity (GEDA national health interview survey)‘ German Index of Multiple Deprivation score (assessed by GIMD) +ve (women)
4 Silhol et al.
France [33]
19,808 adults
35–50 years
Cross-sectional cohort
Municipality level
Incidence of CHD (French GAZEL cohort Data) Area socio - economic position (French Census 1990) −ve
5 Naimi et al.
Canada [36]
342 adults
18–55 years
7 census tracts
BMI, HbA1c, TG, TC, HDL—TCR (Montreal Neighbourhood Survey of Lifestyle and Health) Area-level unemployment (Canada Census 2001) +ve
6 Cox et al.
Scotland [24]
3917 adults
< 35 years
3382 census output areas (OA)
T2DM (DARTS Diabetes Audit and Research Tayside Scotland dataset) Area deprivation (The Carstairs score based on 2001 Scotland census data) +ve
7 Andersen et al.
UK [35]
4286 women
60–79 years
457 British electoral wards
T2DM, FBG, IR (British Women’s Heart and Health Study) Area deprivation (The Carstairs score based on 2001 census data) +ve
8 Gabert et al.
USA [25]
63,053 DM
18–74 years
Retrospective observational 120 zip code areas BP, HbA1c, LDL (Minnesota Community Measurement electronic health records) Area-level indicators of SES (based on American Community Survey 2013) +ve
9 Dragano et al.
GR-Czech [32]
GR: 4814 adults
CZ: 8856 adults
57.7 ± 6.6 years
2 longitudinal cohort studies
326 pre-existing administrative units
Obesity, HT (GR: ‘Heinz
Nixdorf Recall (HNR) Study’, Czech: ‘Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial Factors in Eastern Europe (HAPIEE) Study’)
Area-level socioeconomic status (based on census data) +ve
10 Cubbin et al.
Sweden [31]
18,081 adults
25–64 years
Pooled cross-sectional data 8624 SAMS neighbourhoods Obesity, DM, HT (Swedish Annual Level of Living Survey
(SALLS), 1988–89)
Neighbourhood deprivation (assessed by Care Need Index (CNI) 1997 data) +ve
11 Mujahid et al.
USA [28]
13,167 adults
45–64 years
Crosssectional and longitudinal (3–9 years) Census block BMI (The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities ARIC Study) Neighbourhood SES score (1990 U.S. Census1990) −ve
12 Lawlor et al.
UK [34]
4286 women
60–79 years
457 electoral wards
Coronary heart disease (British Women’s Heart and Health Study) Residential area deprivation(The Carstairs score based on 1991 UK census data) +ve
13 Roux et al.
USA [30]
3093 adults
28–40 years
Cross-sectional 10 years follow up
2260 census block (in 45 states).
BMI, HDL, TG, BP, FI and FG -IRS (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults CARDIA Study) Neighbourhood SES score (1990 U.S. Census) −ve
14 Keita et al.
USA [22]
19,079 black/white
age > 45 years
Cross-sectional cohort
Census block group
Obesity, WC, BP, FBG, TG, low-HDL (REGARDS study). Neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation(US Census 2000) +ve (black/white)
15 Clark, et al.
USA [23]
3909 Afro-Americans
35–84 years
Cross-sectional cohort
102 census tracts
TG, FBG, BP, WC, low-HDL (Jackson Heart Study). Neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage (US Census 2000) +ve (women)
16 Barber et al.
Brazil [21]
10617 adults
35–75 years
Cross sectional cohort Study defined clusters of contiguous census tracts DM and HT (Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health) Area level economic residential segregation (IBGE census 2010) +ve
  1. BMI body mass index, BP blood pressure, BS blood sugar, CHD coronary heart disease, CVD cardiovascular disease, CVH cardiovascular health, DM diabetes mellitus, eGFR estimated Glomerular filtration rate, FBG fasting blood glucose, FG fasting glucose, FI fasting insulin, GR Germany, HbA1c glycated haemoglobin, HDL high density lipoprotein, HT hypertension, IR insulin resistance, IRS insulin resistance syndrome, LDL low density lipoprotein, SES socioeconomic status, TC total cholesterol, TCR total cardiometabolic risk, T2DM type 2 diabetes mellitus, TG triglycerides, SAMS small area market statistics