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Table 2 List of studies reviewed on the association of area-level deprivation and cardiometabolic risk prevalence

From: Geographic and area-level socioeconomic variation in cardiometabolic risk factor distribution: a systematic review of the literature


First author



Age group


Spatial unit

CMRFs* (data source)

Proxies of ASED (data source)



Bonney et al.

Australia [26]

91,776 adults

55.2 ± 15.66

Cross-sectional higherarchical

631 census collection districts

BMI (the SIMLR study)

Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage (Australian Census 2006)

+ve (women)


Unger et al.

USA [27]

5805 adults

45–84 years

Prospective cohort higherarchical

Census tract level

BMI, BP, BS, TC- CVH score (The MESA study)

Neighbourhood SES (constructed summary score)



Maier et al.

Germany [29]

33,690 adults

< 30 years

Cross-sectional design

412 districts

T2DM, obesity (GEDA national health interview survey)‘

German Index of Multiple Deprivation score (assessed by GIMD)

+ve (women)


Silhol et al.

France [33]

19,808 adults

35–50 years

Cross-sectional cohort

Municipality level

Incidence of CHD (French GAZEL cohort Data)

Area socio - economic position (French Census 1990)



Naimi et al.

Canada [36]

342 adults

18–55 years


7 census tracts

BMI, HbA1c, TG, TC, HDL—TCR (Montreal Neighbourhood Survey of Lifestyle and Health)

Area-level unemployment (Canada Census 2001)



Cox et al.

Scotland [24]

3917 adults

< 35 years


3382 census output areas (OA)

T2DM (DARTS Diabetes Audit and Research Tayside Scotland dataset)

Area deprivation (The Carstairs score based on 2001 Scotland census data)



Andersen et al.

UK [35]

4286 women

60–79 years


457 British electoral wards

T2DM, FBG, IR (British Women’s Heart and Health Study)

Area deprivation (The Carstairs score based on 2001 census data)



Gabert et al.

USA [25]

63,053 DM

18–74 years

Retrospective observational 120 zip code areas

BP, HbA1c, LDL (Minnesota Community Measurement electronic health records)

Area-level indicators of SES (based on American Community Survey 2013)



Dragano et al.

GR-Czech [32]

GR: 4814 adults

CZ: 8856 adults

57.7 ± 6.6 years

2 longitudinal cohort studies

326 pre-existing administrative units

Obesity, HT (GR: ‘Heinz

Nixdorf Recall (HNR) Study’, Czech: ‘Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial Factors in Eastern Europe (HAPIEE) Study’)

Area-level socioeconomic status (based on census data)



Cubbin et al.

Sweden [31]

18,081 adults

25–64 years

Pooled cross-sectional data 8624 SAMS neighbourhoods

Obesity, DM, HT (Swedish Annual Level of Living Survey

(SALLS), 1988–89)

Neighbourhood deprivation (assessed by Care Need Index (CNI) 1997 data)



Mujahid et al.

USA [28]

13,167 adults

45–64 years

Crosssectional and longitudinal (3–9 years) Census block

BMI (The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities ARIC Study)

Neighbourhood SES score (1990 U.S. Census1990)



Lawlor et al.

UK [34]

4286 women

60–79 years


457 electoral wards

Coronary heart disease (British Women’s Heart and Health Study)

Residential area deprivation(The Carstairs score based on 1991 UK census data)



Roux et al.

USA [30]

3093 adults

28–40 years

Cross-sectional 10 years follow up

2260 census block (in 45 states).

BMI, HDL, TG, BP, FI and FG -IRS (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults CARDIA Study)

Neighbourhood SES score (1990 U.S. Census)



Keita et al.

USA [22]

19,079 black/white

age > 45 years

Cross-sectional cohort

Census block group

Obesity, WC, BP, FBG, TG, low-HDL (REGARDS study).

Neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation(US Census 2000)

+ve (black/white)


Clark, et al.

USA [23]

3909 Afro-Americans

35–84 years

Cross-sectional cohort

102 census tracts

TG, FBG, BP, WC, low-HDL (Jackson Heart Study).

Neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage (US Census 2000)

+ve (women)


Barber et al.

Brazil [21]

10617 adults

35–75 years

Cross sectional cohort Study defined clusters of contiguous census tracts

DM and HT (Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health)

Area level economic residential segregation (IBGE census 2010)


  1. BMI body mass index, BP blood pressure, BS blood sugar, CHD coronary heart disease, CVD cardiovascular disease, CVH cardiovascular health, DM diabetes mellitus, eGFR estimated Glomerular filtration rate, FBG fasting blood glucose, FG fasting glucose, FI fasting insulin, GR Germany, HbA1c glycated haemoglobin, HDL high density lipoprotein, HT hypertension, IR insulin resistance, IRS insulin resistance syndrome, LDL low density lipoprotein, SES socioeconomic status, TC total cholesterol, TCR total cardiometabolic risk, T2DM type 2 diabetes mellitus, TG triglycerides, SAMS small area market statistics