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Table 3 Thematic mapping of data categories from all included studies

From: Geographic and area-level socioeconomic variation in cardiometabolic risk factor distribution: a systematic review of the literature

Theme Study origin Representation Ecological context Nature of problem Evidence Strength
Data map Reference
Nation (status)
 Region
Sample frame
Sampling
Response or retention  %
Geographic unit and/or ASED Cardiometabolic risk nature Data source
Analyses
1. Roux et al. [30]
USA (Industrialised)
North America
Population and service providers' lists
79% retention
Small area
ASED: income, education, occupation
Biochemical, anthropometric
Physiological
Self-report, PE, Specimen tests
Statistical
2. Lawlor et al. [19]
UK (Industrialised)
Western Europe
Service provider’s list
Random
60% response
Large area Biochemical, anthropometric, physiological Self-report, PE, Specimen tests, MR
Statistical
3. Mujahid et al. [28] USA (Industrialised)
North America
Population list1
Random
81% retention
Small area
ASED: income, education, occupation
Anthropometric Self-report, PE
Statistical
4. Lawlor et al. [34]
UK (Industrialised)
Western Europe
Service provider’s list
Random
60% response
Median area
ASED: employment, housing, transport, social class
Biochemical, anthropometric,
physiological
Self-report, PE, Specimen tests, MR
Statistical
5. Cubbin et al. [31]
Sweden(Industrialised)
Northern Europe
Population list2
Random4
~ 80% response
Small area
ASED: population structure, education, unemployment etc.
Anthropometric, physiological, diagnostic: DM Self-report
Statistical
6. Cox et al. [24]
Scotland (Industrialised)
Western Europe
Service provider’s list
~Purposive
Small area
ASED: employment, housing, transport, social class
Diagnostic—T2DM Medical record
Spatial and Statistical
7. Dragano et al. [32]
GR-Czech(Industrialised)
Western—Central Europe
Population list
Random
56 and 55% responses
Small area
ASED: unemployment
overcrowding
Anthropometric, physiological Self-report, PE
Statistical
8. Andersen et al. [35]
UK (Industrialised)
Western Europe
Service provider’s lists
Random
60% response
Small area
ASED: employment, housing, transport, social class
Biochemical Self-report, PE, MR
Statistical
9. Naimi et al. [36]
Canada (Industrialised)
North America
Population list
Stratified cluster sampling
15% response
Medium area
ASED: Education
employment
Anthropometric, biochemical Self-report, PE, Specimen tests
Statistical
10. Barker et al. [20]
USA (Industrialised)
North America
Population list
Random
50.6% response
Medium area Anthropometric, biochemical Self-report
Statistical
11. Silhol et al. [33]
France (Industrialised)
Western Europe
Employees lists
~purposive
Medium area
ASED: higher job, education
Anthropometric, biochemical physiological Self-report, Employers data, Insurance data
Spatial and Statistical
12. Keita et al. [22]
USA (Industrialised)
North America
Population list Small area
ASED: income, housing education and occupation
Biochemical, anthropometric
physiological
Self-report, PE, Specimen tests
Statistical
13. Clark et al. [23]
USA (Industrialised)
North America 6
Population list
Random
Medium area
ASED :10 components
Biochemical, anthropometric
physiological
PE, Specimen tests
Statistical
14. Valdes et al. [18]
Spain (Industrialised)
Southern Europe
Population list
Cluster –random
54.6% response
Large area Anthropometric, 
hysiological,
biochemical
Self-report, PE, Specimen tests
Statistical
15. Astell-Burt et al. [14]
Australia (Industrialised)
Oceania
Population (insurance) lists
Random
Medium area Biochemical, physiological Self-report
Spatial and Statistical
16. Unger et al. [27]
USA (Industrialised)
North America
Population and service provider’s list
(~ purposive)
Medium area
ASED: income, housing, education, occupation.
Anthropometric biochemical
physiological
Self-report, PE, Specimen tests
Statistical
17. Maier et al. [29]
Germany(Industrialised)
West - Central Europe
Population list
Random
29.1% response
Large area.
ASED: income, employment, education, revenue, social capital, environment, security
Anthropometric
Diagnostic—T2DM
Self-report
Statistical
18. Zhou et al. [17]
China (Developing)
East Asia
Population (survey) list
Random
90.5% response
Large area Anthropometric
biochemical
Self-report, Specimen tests
Statistical
19. Bonney et al. [26]
Australia (Industrialised)
Oceania
Service provider’s list
(~ purposive)
Small area.
ASED: income, education, employment, family structure, disability, housing, transport and internet connection
Anthropometric Medical record
Statistical
20. Gabert et al. [25]
USA (Industrialised)
North America 8
Employees list
83.6% response
Small area
ASED: income, education, insurance
Biochemical Medical record
Spatial and Statistical
21. Paquet et al. [16]
AU-France
(Industrialised)
Oceania - West Europe
Australia: Population list
(Random 13/49.4% response 3) France: Employees list
(Purposive/83.6% response)
Small area Anthropometric,
biochemical,
hysiological
PE, Specimen tests
Spatial and Statistical
22. Alkerwi et al. [15]
Luxemberg (Industrialised)
Western Europe
Population (survey) list
stratified random
32.2% response
Medium area Physiological,
biochemical
Self-report, PE, Specimen tests
Spatial and Statistical
23. Oh et al. [13]
South Korea (Developing)
East Asia
Population (ministry) lists
~purposive
Medium area Biochemical,
physiological,
diagnostic
Self-report
Spatial and Statistical
24. Barber et al. [21]
Brazil (Developing)
South America
Employees lists
~purposive
Large area
ASED: income
Biochemical,
anthropometric,
physiological
Self-report, PE, Specimen tests
Spatial and Statistical