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Table 3 Association between population density and blood lipids and mediation by objectively measured MVPA and SB adjusted for confounders

From: The association between population density and blood lipid levels in Dutch blood donors

IV DV MV Effect of population density on lifestyle behaviors Effect of lifestyle behaviors on blood lipids Total effect Direct effect Indirect effect
(a-path) (b-path) (c-path) (c′-path) (a-path × b-path)
β 95% CI β 95% CI β 95% CI β 95% CI β 95% BCI
Population density per 1000 inhabitants LDL cholesterol MVPA 0.00 (− 0.00, 0.00) − 0.16 (− 0.91, 0.59) 0.00 (− 0.02, 0.01) 0.00 (− 0.02, 0.01) 0.00 (0.00, 0.00)
SB 0.00 (− 0.17, 0.16) 0.00 (0.00, 0.01)    
TC/HDL cholesterol ratio MVPA 0.00 (− 0.00, 0.00) − 0.43 (− 0.71, − 0.16) 0.00 (− 0.01, 0.00) 0.00 (− 0.01, 0.00) 0.00 (0.00, 0.00)
SB 0.00 (− 0.17, 0.16) 0.00 (0.00, 0.00)    
Triglycerides MVPA 0.00 (− 0.00, 0.00) − 0.55 (− 1.02, − 0.08) 0.00 (− 0.01, 0.01) 0.00 (− 0.01, 0.01) 0.00 (0.00, 0.00)
SB 0.00 (− 0.17, 0.16) 0.00 (− 0.01, 0.00)    
  1. Residuals of MVPA, TC/HDL and TG were not normally distributed and were, therefore, log transformed, this table presents log transformed data. italics regression coefficients and 95% confidence intervals are statistically significant p < 0.05
  2. IV Independent variable, DV dependent variable, MV mediating variable, a-path association between population density and mediating variable, b-path association between mediating variable and blood lipid outcome, c-path association between population density and blood lipid outcome, c′-path association between population density and blood lipid outcome adjusted for mediating variables, indirect effect indirect effect of population density on blood lipid outcome through mediating variables, β unstandardized regression coefficient, 95% CI 95% confidence interval, BCI bootstrapped confidence interval, SB sedentary behavior expressed per 10 min, MVPA moderate to vigorous physical activity expressed per 10 min, TC/HDL cholesterol ratio total cholesterol/high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, LDL low density lipoprotein cholesterol, TG triglycerides