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Table 1 Population characteristics by sex and urban designation

From: Urban environment as an independent predictor of insulin resistance in a South Asian population

Characteristics Females Males
Rural (N = 1467) Urban (N = 2203) Rural (N = 1054) Urban (N = 1626)
Age (years)b 40.1 (9.2) 40.3 ± 9.5 45.4 (10.7) 44.1 (10.4)
FBS (mg/dL)a 94.5 (9.6) 92.4 (8.6) 92.6 (9.6) 92.2 (9.7)
Insulin (mIU/L)a,b 7.87 (5.24) 8.93 (7.58) 6.45 (4.66) 8.02 (6.07)
HOMA-IR (mg/dL)a,b 1.87 (1.29) 2.06 (1.79) 1.49 (1.09) 1.85 (1.53)
Energy intake (kcal)a,b 2338.4 (685.6) 2446.9 (704.2) 2952.0 (807.7) 3210.4 (928.1)
BMI ≤ 24.9a,b 852 (58.1%) 938 (42.6%) 790 (75%) 1011 (62.2%)
BMI ≥ 25a,b 615 (41.9%) 1265 (57.4%) 264 (25%) 615 (37.8%)
Socioeconomic scorea,b 11.9 (4.2) 12.7 (4.2) 13.2 (4.5) 14.2 (4.9)
Stress scorea,b 4.1 (3.4) 4.9 (3.0) 4.5 (3.2) 5.1 (2.7)
Physical activity     
 Lowa,b 207 (14.1%) 368 (16.7%) 242 (23%) 481 (29.6%)
 Moderate 1194 (81.4%) 1804 (81.9%) 680 (64.5%) 1044 (64.2%)
 Higha,b 64 (4.4%) 31 (1.4%) 132 (12.5%) 100 (6.2%)
Smoking     
 Smokersa,b 9 (0.6%) 70 (3.2%) 422 (40%) 444 (27.3%)
 Non-smokersa,b 1458 (99.4%) 2133 (96.8%) 632 (60%) 1182 (72.7%)
  1. aSig. difference between rural and urban females
  2. bSig. difference between rural and urban males