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Table 2 Mean HOMA-IR (mg/dL) stratified by demographic and urbanization variables

From: Urban environment as an independent predictor of insulin resistance in a South Asian population

Characteristic Females Males
Mean (SD) Min–max Mean(SD) Min–max
All participants 1.98 (1.61) 0.15–45.88 1.71 (1.39) 0.02–32.00
Age (years)     
 ≤ 39 1.96 (1.48) 0.15–35.13 1.75 (1.20) 0.02–7.93
 ≥ 40 2.01 (1.73) 0.18–35.75 1.69 (1.47) 0.06–32.00
BMI(kg/m2)a     
 Non-obese ≤ 24.9 1.52 (1.32) 0.15–35.13 1.31 (1.01) 0.02–16.28
 Obese ≥ 25 2.42 (1.75) 0.43–35.75 2.53 (1.67) 0.19–32.00
Physical activityb,c     
 Low 2.11 (1.81) 0.18–35.75 2.06 (1.43) 0.12–12.44
 Moderate 1.97 (1.59) 0.15–35.13 1.63 (1.39) 0.02–32.00
 High 1.54 (0.86) 0.41–5.57 1.25 (0.97) 0.11–7.03
Smoking statusd     
 Smoker 1.96 (0.99) 0.59–4.86 1.54 (1.63) 0.02–32.00
 Non-smoker 1.98 (1.63) 0.15–35.75 1.79 (1.24) 0.09–16.28
Distance Urban Center (km)e,f     
 0–20 (0) 2.69 (2.44) 0.15–35.75 2.39 (2.29) 0.02–32.00
 20–40 (1) 2.35 (2.15) 0.19–45.88 2.13 (2.11) 0.19–29.50
 40–60 (2) 2.04 (1.48) 0.18–11.47 1.93 (1.80) 0.11–18.06
 60–80 (3) 2.12 (1.93) 0.23–31.56 1.93 (1.82) 0.17–22.34
Land cover categoryg     
 Urban 2.68 (2.48) 0.20–35.13 2.44 (2.27) 0.06–32.00
 Non-Urban 2.28 (2.01) 0.15–45.88 2.04 (2.01) 0.02–29.5
Census Designationh     
 Urban urban 2.53 (2.53) 0.19–35.75 2.35 (2.22) 0.02–32.00
 Rural 2.20 (2.05) 0.15–45.88 1.87 (1.85) 0.11–29.50
  1. aStatistically significant difference (p < 0.01) between non-obese and obese among females and males
  2. bStatistically significant difference (p < 0.05) between low & high and moderate & high physical activity among females
  3. cStatistically significant difference (p < 0.05) between low & moderate, low & high, and moderate & high physical activity among males
  4. dStatistically significant difference (p < 0.05) between smokers and non-smokers among males
  5. eStatistically significant difference between 0&1, 0&2, 0&3 (p < 0.001) and 1&2 in distance categories among females
  6. fStatistically significant difference between 0&1 (p < 0.05), 0&2, 0&3 (p < 0.001) in distance categories among males
  7. gStatistically significant difference between urban and non-urban (p < 0.001) among males and females
  8. hStatistically significant difference between rural and urban (p < 0.001) among males and females