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Table 3 Odds ratio (OR) for insulin resistance (75th percentile HOMA-IR is 2.35)

From: Urban environment as an independent predictor of insulin resistance in a South Asian population

Urbanization metric Females Males
OR unadjusted (95% CI) OR adjusted (95% CI) OR unadjusted (95% CI) OR adjusted (95% CI)
Distance from urban center (km)
 < 20 1.95 (1.55, 2.45) 1.79 (1.39, 2.29) 2.17 (1.63, 2.90) 2.30 (1.64, 3.22)
 20–40 1.79 (1.42, 2.27) 1.72 (1.32, 2.23) 1.50 (1.10, 2.04) 1.59 (1.11, 2.29)
 41–60 0.87 (0.65, 1.17) 1.11 (0.82, 1.52) 1.11 (0.78, 1.57) 1.77 (1.19, 2.64)
 61–80 Ref Ref Ref Ref
Land cover type
 Urban 1.45 (1.25, 1.69) 1.31 (1.1, 1.56) 1.54 (1.27, 1.87) 1.25 (0.99, 1.57)
 Non-urban Ref Ref Ref Ref
Census community designation
 Urban 1.31 (1.12, 1.52) 1.04 (0.88, 1.24) 1.77 (1.45, 2.16) 1.35 (1.07, 1.72)
 Rural Ref Ref Ref Ref
  1. Adjusted models include age, smoking, BMI, physical activity, stress score, socioeconomic score, and energy intake. Italic type indicates statistically significant associations