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Table 6 Summaries of covariates and outcomes of retained VISTA12 participants by hard threshold liveability score quintile (including air quality)

From: The Urban Liveability Index: developing a policy-relevant urban liveability composite measure and evaluating associations with transport mode choice

  ULI quintiles, including air quality p value
87.3, 96.0 96.0, 98.3 98.3, 100.1 100.1, 102.2 102.2, 110.6  
N 2465 2464 2465 2465 2464  
Age       
Continuous—median [IQR] 47 [24.0] 46 [24.0] 46 [25.0] 45 [25.0] 46 [26.0] 0.972a
 Group—n (%)       < 0.010b
 18–29 431 (17.5) 429 (17.4) 447 (18.1) 434 (17.6) 434 (17.6)  
 30–49 935 (37.9) 1011 (41.0) 987 (40.0) 1016 (41.2) 938 (38.1)  
 50–64 745 (30.2) 663 (26.9) 652 (26.5) 613 (24.9) 692 (28.1)  
 65 and over 354 (14.4) 361 (14.7) 379 (15.4) 402 (16.3) 400 (16.2)  
Sex       0.528c
Male 1199 (48.6) 1227 (49.8) 1190 (48.3) 1203 (48.8) 1186 (48.1)  
Female 1266 (51.4) 1237 (50.2) 1275 (51.7) 1262 (51.2) 1278 (51.9)  
Household structure       < 0.001b
Lone person 176 (7.1) 225 (9.1) 296 (12.0) 294 (11.9) 392 (15.9)  
With children 774 (31.4) 840 (34.1) 679 (27.5) 695 (28.2) 610 (24.8)  
Without children 1515 (61.5) 1399 (56.8) 1490 (60.4) 1476 (59.9) 1462 (59.3)  
Employedn (%)       < 0.001c
Yes 1810 (73.4) 1788 (72.6) 1745 (70.8) 1738 (70.5) 1667 (67.7)  
Vehicle accessn (%)       < 0.001c
No 23 (0.9) 64 (2.6) 105 (4.3) 86 (3.5) 139 (5.6)  
Survey administration day of weeken (%)   < 0.004b
Weekday 1922 (78.0) 1880 (76.3) 1847 (74.9) 1836 (74.5) 1900 (77.1)  
Weekend 543 (22.0) 584 (23.7) 618 (25.1) 629 (25.5) 564 (22.9)  
Equivalised household income (pre-tax weekly $AUD)  
Continuous—median [IQR] 972.2 [803.6] 985.7 [878.1] 980 [905.6] 964.3 [906.2] 933.3 [940.0] < 0.008d
 Quintiles—n (%)       < 0.001b
  < 500 438 (17.8) 482 (19.6) 569 (23.1) 532 (21.6) 599 (24.3)  
  500–810 480 (19.5) 476 (19.3) 452 (18.3) 465 (18.9) 444 (18.0)  
  812–1125 586 (23.8) 487 (19.8) 428 (17.4) 510 (20.7) 447 (18.1)  
  1129–1633 521 (21.1) 539 (21.9) 532 (21.6) 437 (17.7) 473 (19.2)  
  > 1635 440 (17.9) 480 (19.5) 484 (19.6) 521 (21.1) 501 (20.3)  
At least one transport trip reported, by mode of transportn (%)  
Walking 416 (16.9) 603 (24.5) 699 (28.4) 757 (30.7) 883 (35.8) < 0.001c
Cycling 43 (1.7) 57 (2.3) 72 (2.9) 80 (3.2) 91 (3.7) < 0.001c
Public transport 78 (3.2) 213 (8.6) 267 (10.8) 313 (12.7) 316 (12.8) < 0.001c
Driving 2304 (93.5) 2197 (89.2) 2074 (84.1) 2082 (84.5) 2005 (81.4) < 0.001c
  1. Tests: alm(trend); bChi-squared; cglm (trend); dlm(sqrt) (trend); esurvey day of administration was included as separate days in statistical models, but for conciseness summarised here as week or weekend day