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Table 1 Comparison of indoor positioning approaches

From: Comparative analysis of computer-vision and BLE technology based indoor navigation systems for people with visual impairments

Indoor positioning technologyInfrastructureHardwarePopular measurement methodsPopular techniquesAccuracy
Computer visionDedicated infrastructure not requiredCamera or inbuilt camera of smartphonePattern recognitionScene analysisLow to medium
Motion detectionDedicated infrastructure not requiredInertial sensor or inbuilt sensors of smartphoneTrackingDead reckoningMedium
Wi-FiUtilize existing infrastructure of buildingWi-Fi access points and smartphoneRSSFingerprinting and trilaterationLow to medium
BluetoothDedicated infrastructure requiredBLE beacons and smartphoneRSS and ProximityFingerprinting and trilaterationMedium
RFIDDedicated infrastructure requiredRFID tags and RFID tag readersRSS and proximityFingerprintingMedium
VLCDedicated infrastructure not requiredLED lights and Photo detectorRSS and AOATrilateration and triangulationMedium to high
UWBDedicated infrastructure requiredUWB tags and UWB tag readerTOA, TDOATrilaterationHigh