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Table 10 Comparison of developed indoor navigation systems

From: Comparative analysis of computer-vision and BLE technology based indoor navigation systems for people with visual impairments

ReferenceTechnologySystemTechniquesTested byTestFeedbackAccuracyRemarks
CamNavComputer visionSmartphone, laptopCNN based scene recognitionBlindfoldedError occurred during navigation and navigation timeVoiceMedium(−) Hard to differentiate indoor locations with similar appearance
QRNavComputer visionSmartphone, laptop, QR codesQR code recognitionBlindfoldedError occurred during navigation and navigation timeVoiceMedium(−) Requires large amount of QR codes for safe navigation
BLE base systemBLEBeacons and smartphoneFingerprinting and trilaterationBlindfoldedError occurred during navigation and navigation timeVoiceLow(−) Relatively low accuracy resulted in navigation errors