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Table 2 Comparison of discussed indoor positioning solutions for people with visual impairments

From: Comparative analysis of computer-vision and BLE technology based indoor navigation systems for people with visual impairments

ReferencesTechnologySystemTechniquesTested byTestFeedbackAccuracyRemarks
Tian et al. [29]Computer visionWeb camera and mini laptopText recognition and door detectionBlindsDoor detection and door signage recognitionVoiceMedium(−) Motion blur and very large occlusions happen when subjects have sudden head movements
Lee and Medioni [36]Computer visionRGB-D camera, IMU, LaptopCamera motion estimationBlinds and blindfoldedPose estimation and mobility experimentsTactileMedium(−) Inconsistency in maps
Manlises et al. [33]Computer visionWeb camera and computerCAMShift trackingBlindsObject recognition, navigation timeVoiceMedium(−) Tested with 3 blinds only
Li et al. [37]Computer visionTango mobile deviceObstacle detection, camera motion estimation by combining visual and inertial dataBlindfoldedError occurred during navigation and navigation timeVoice and HapticGoodUsing smart cane with the system reduced the errors
Kanwal et al. [38]Computer visionRGB camera and Kinect sensorCorner detection using visual and inertial dataBlind and blindfoldedObstacle avoidance and walkingVoiceGood(−) Infrared sensor failed under strong sunlight conditions
Al-Khalifa et al. [40]Computer vision and motionGoogle glass, Android smartphone, QR codeQR code recognition, IMUBlindsError occurred during navigation and navigation timeVoiceMedium(+) Easy to use
Legge et al. [42]Computer visionDigital tags, Tag reader , smartphoneDigital tag recognitionBlinds and Blind foldedTag detection, Route findingVoiceMedium(+) System provided independent navigation
Zeb et al. [43]Computer visionWeb cam, AR markersAR marker recognitionBlindsNormal walkingVoiceMediumLow cost
Ahmetovic et al. [48]BLEBeacons and smartphoneFingerprinting, IMUBlindsNormal occurred events that hinder the navigationVoiceMedium(−) Can’t inform the users that they are in wrong way
Kim et al. [49]BLEBeacons and smartphoneProximity detection, IMUBlindsNavigation time, task completion, deviation during navigationTactile and voiceGood(+) Test was carried out in a large area (busy railway station)
Cheraghi et al. [50]BLEBeacons and smartphoneProximity detection, IMUBlindsnavigation time, Navigation distanceHaptic and voiceMediumImprovements are required to support varying pace of walking