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Table 3 Traffic and safety features for street segments

From: Virtual audits of the urban streetscape: comparing the inter-rater reliability of GigaPan® to Google Street View

Feature N PR PA Cohen’s kappa PABAK
GP GSV GP (%) GSV (%) GP 95% CI GSV 95% CI GP 95% CI GSV 95% CI
Stop sign* 103 0.33 0.34 93 95 0.85 [0.74, 0.96] 0.89 [0.80, 0.99] 0.86 [0.76,0.97] 0.90 [0.82, 0.99]
Sidewalk 106 0.81 0.80 92 89 0.83 [0.73, 0.94] 0.76 [0.64, 0.89] 0.87 [0.79, 0.95] 0.83 [0.74. 0.92]
Marked crosswalk* 104 0.22 0.27 94 91 0.83 [0.70, 0.97] 0.78 [0.65, 0.92] 0.88 [0.79, 0.98] 0.83 [0.72, 0.94]
Traffic light* 104 0.16 0.14 93 98 0.75 [0.56, 0.93] 0.92 [0.81, 1.00] 0.87 [0.76, 0.97] 0.96 [0.91, 1.00]
Curb 106 0.78 0.73 86 70 0.68 [0.54, 0.82] 0.45 [0.31, 0.59] 0.79 [0.69, 0.89] 0.55 [0.41, 0.68]
Number of traffic lanes* 105 0.73 0.73 87 90 0.66 [0.50, 0.82] 0.76 [0.61, 0.90] 0.73 [0.60, 0.87] 0.81 [0.70, 0.92]
Street or sidewalk lighting 105 0.87 0.81 79 71 0.56 [0.40, 0.72] 0.44 [0.27, 0.61] 0.69 [0.57, 0.80] 0.57 [0.44, 0.70]
Continuous sidewalk 81 0.88 0.83 74 86 0.43 [0.32, 0.50] 0.72 [0.57, 0.86] 0.61 [0.46, 0.76] 0.78 [0.66, 0.90]
Street and sidewalk buffer 80 0.27 0.34 75 68 0.42 [0.21, 0.63] 0.35 [0.16, 0.54] 0.63 [0.48, 0.77] 0.51 [0.35, 0.67]
Continuous sidewalk (both ends) 81 0.75 0.78 65 80 0.38 [0.32, 0.41] 0.63 [0.53, 0.78] 0.48 [0.32, 0.64] 0.70 [0.57, 0.84]
Missing curb cuts at crossing 79 0.25 0.13 53 77 −0.17 [−0.20, −0.11] 0.06 [−0.04, 0.29] 0.30 [0.13, 0.47] 0.66 [0.51, 0.80]
  1. PR average prevalence, PA percent agreement, GP GigaPan®, GSV Google Street View, CI confidence interval, PABAK prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted kappa. An * denotes the variable was dichotomous. All other variables not denoted with * were recoded to be dichotomous solely when calculating prevalence. Significant differences across audit tools are italicized.
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