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Table 1 Availability of personal exposure variables and data sources

From: Deep phenotyping meets big data: the Geoscience and hEalth Cohort COnsortium (GECCO) data to enable exposome studies in The Netherlands

Exposure category Environmental variable(s) Period Exposure zone(s)
A(r) = address radius (m)
Ac = address coordinates
NB = neighbourhood
P4 = 4-digit postal code
P6 = 6-digit postal code
Geodata source Remarks
1. Physical activity environment (infrastructure and land use deter-mining the way the surroundings can be accessed and used) Altitude in centimetres 2000–2018 Ac, NB, P4, P6—cooperation of provinces, central government and water boards The altitude map of the Netherlands is a laser altimetry product in raster format available on different horizontal scales levels
-25 m. resolution (AHN1) 2000 (ca.)
-5 m. resolution (AHN2) 2010 (ca.)
-50 cm. resolution (AHN3) 2018 (ca.)
Bicycle path density 2019 NB Basic topography register system (BRT—TOP10—Cadastre, 2019) with point and line layers of roads, railways, junctions, ramps and exits, bridges, tunnels, cycle lanes, footpaths, etc Topographic cycle path line data joined with data ‘Landelijk fietsplatform
Road density 2015 NB The (car)road density is derived from the dataset TOP10 NL 2015 (line feature layer WEGDEEL_HARTLIJN)
Street connectivity 1989 1993 2001 2003 2012 2015 2019 A150,250,350,500,750, 1000,1650,2000 Key register Large-scale Topography (BGT—Cadastre) including among others polygon layers of separate bicycle lanes and sideways Connectivity of the street network, represented by the ratio between the number of true intersections (three or more legs) to the size of the selected area
NB, P4, P6
Sidewalk density 1989 1993 1996 2000 2003 2008 2012 2015 2019 A150,250,350,500,750,   Density of sidewalk polygon area calculated as Z-scores. Years before 2015 are constructed using auxiliary data
NB, P4, P6
Land use 1989 1993 1996 2000 2003 2006 20082020 2012 2015 Ac, NB, P4, P6 Land use—Statistics Netherlands (CBS) based on a.o. TOP10 and aerial photography. Classification in 9 main land use classes and ca. 40 subclasses Land use concerns generalized data. Classification changes occur between 1993 and 1996
Land use mix/ entropy index 1989 1993 1996 2000 2003 2006 2008 2010 2012 2015 A150,250,350,500,750, 1000,1650,2000 NB, P4, P6 Land use—Statistics Netherlands (CBS) The land use mix is calculated as Z-scores and indicates the heterogeneity of five specific land use classes
Land use classes
3-social-cultural services
4-offices/ public services
5-greenspace/ recreation
Green space density 1989 1993 1996 2000 2003 2006 2008 2010 2012 2015 A150,250,350,500,750, 1000,1650,2000
NB, P4, P6
Land use—Statistics Netherlands (CBS) Greenspace density calculated as Z-scores. Greenspace includes public gardens, parks, forests and graveyards
Green space (10 m. res.) 2017 NB, P4, P6 Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM)/ Atlas Leefomgeving (ALO) Combination of different datasets related to green space derived from the AHN2 and AHN3 files, the BAG buildings and the Infrared aerial photo (CIR file, resolution of 0.25 m)
-% Trees
-Tree height classes
-% Shrubs
-% Low vegetation
Sport accommodation density (indoor and outdoor) 2017 NB Databestand SportAanbod (DSA) Mulier instituut Accommodation density is calculated from a national dataset with xy coordinates from ca. 22.000 sport accommodations managed by the Mulier institute
Base topography—TOP10 BRT—(a.o. roads, tracks, water, terrain, furnishing elements) 2003 2005 2010 2011 2012 2013 2015 2019 NB, P4, P6 Basic topography register system (BRT—TOP10—Cadastre
Key register large-scale Topography—BGT (point, line and polygon layers of topographical objects) 2012–2020 continuous NB, P4, P6 Key register large-scale Topography—BGT—Cadastre Application scale 1:500–1:5.000
Walkability index 1989 1993 1996 2000 2003 2006 2008 2010 2012 2015 A150,250,350,500,750, 1000,1650,2000
NB, P4, P6
GECCO project based on land use and population Statistics Netherlands (CBS) and basic/ large scale topography Cadastre Netherlands Walkability is calculated by summing the z-scores of its six components and normalizing the results to values between 0 and 100
Composite score based on six components:
1) Population density
2) Density of retail and service destinations
3) Land-use mix
4) Street connectivity
5) Green space
6) Side walk density
Bicycle and walking network including cycling and walking routes, networks and transport nodes 2019 continuous NB, P4 Derived from TOP10 NL road data by Landelijk Fietsplatform and Wandelnet Vector line data
2. Transport/mobility environment Parking spaces (public street parking spaces, private residential places and paid/ unpaid parking garages and car parks) 2019 (park spaces BAG 2015) NB Derived from dataset ‘Parking places’ Cadastre/ RDW (Netherlands Vehicle Authority). Combines vector point and polygon data from BGT, TOP10, BAG and RDW on scales 1:2.500–1:10.000 Statistical summaries have been made for the neighbourhood borders of 2016. The BAG data for private built-up parking spaces concerns the year 2015, the other data concerns 2019
-Number of parking places
-Park space density in
number of parking places per household
-Number of parking places per hectare
-Park space ratio as
-Number of cars/ number of parking places
Public transport stop density (bus, ferry, metro, taxi and tram stops) 2018 (updated from 2015) NB Geodienst Rijksuniversiteit Groningen/ databank Nationale Data Openbaar Vervoer (NDOV) Kernel point densities (1000-m search radius) of public transport stops are calculated to overcome MAUP neighbourhood effect
Railway stations 2019 A(r), NB, P4, P6 Esri Netherlands Datasets On the basis of this dataset several distance and density based exposure variables can be derived on request
3. Environmental pollution (pollution/ nuisance in surroundings, air, soil or water, measured, modeled and/or perceived) Traffic noise—daily mean (mixed road, rail and air) in Lden 2000 2004, 2005 2007 2008 Ac, P4, P6 PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency Modelled data with Empara noise tool with 25 × 25 m resolution on mixed traffic noise in dB
Traffic noise—daily mean (road only) in Lden 2000 2004 2007 2008 2010 2011 Ac, P4, P6 PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency Modelled data with Empara noise tool with 25 × 25 m resolution on road noise in dB. Several factors are accounted including traffic intensity, road types and sound barriers
Traffic noise— national roads (high ways) 2006 2011 2016 Ac, P4, P6 Dep. of Waterways and Public Works (Min. of IenW)
Airport noise Schiphol 2016 Ac, P6 Ministry of Infrastruc-ture and Water Management (IenW) Separate data available for day and night (noise in Lden)
Air pollution < 25 m resolution modelled annual average of min., max. and mean values 2009 Ac, P4, P6 Institute of Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS)/ European Study of Cohort for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE) Annual average outdoor pollution concentrations modelled/ interpolated with measurement data, traffic data and the physical environment. See online mapviewer
-Particulate matter (PM2.5)
-PM 2.5 absorbance
-Particulate matter (PM10)
-Particulate matter (PMcoarse)
-Nitrogen dioxide (NO2)
-Nitrogen oxide (NOx)
Air pollution 25 m. resolution modelled annual average
-Particulate matter (PM2.5)
-Particulate matter (PM10)
-Nitrogen dioxide (NO2)
-Soot (EC)
2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 (NO2 not for 2013) Ac, NB, P4, P6 Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) Annual average outdoor pollution concentrations based on a combination of model calculations and measurements from official measurement locations. SOOT (EC) maps indicative only
Air pollution 1 km resolution modelled annual average 1995-2018 Yearly Ac, NB, P4, P6 Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) Modelled future concentra-tions are available for all variables for 2020, 2025 and 2030, apart for C6H6 and CO
-Benzene (C6H6) 2011–2018
-Carbon monoxide (CO) 2011–2018
-Carbon monoxide p98 (CO) 2011–2018
-Particulate matter (PM2.5) 2017–2018
-Particulate matter (PM10) 1995–2018
-Ammonia (NH3) 2011–2018
-Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) 1995–2018
-Nitrogen oxide (NOx) 2011–2018
-Ozone (O3) 2011–2018
-Soot (EC) 2011–2018
-Sulphur dioxide (SO2) 2011–2018
4. Food and retail environment Food environment healthiness-index (other variables derived from Locatus point data on request) 2016 (other years on request) NB (on the basis of this dataset several distance and density based exposure variables can be derived on request) Retail point coordinate data LOCATUS (2004–2020) Index score (food environment healthiness index) between − 5 and + 5 according to FEHI score as described elsewhere [32]. Data is aggregated to neighbourhoods using point density kernels to prevent MAUP issue
5. Socio-economic environment (administrative divisions, key demography, social and economic parameters and cultural amenities) Neighbourhood statistics Two-yearly 1995–2001
One-yearly 2002–2019
Ac, NB ‘Wijk- en buurtkaarten’ Statistics Netherlands (CBS) The Dutch statistical office (CBS), records a range of demographic variables per neighbourhood
Neighbourhood borders/divisions can change over the years and also the recorded variables can change over the years
-Demographics (age classes, sex, mortality, etc.) -Population density
-Housing stock-Living (rent, ownership, residence types, etc.)-Energy consumption (gas/ electricity)-Education-Labour-Income
-Crime-Social security -Businesses-Motor vehicles -Land use
-Amenities (average distance to specific facilities and average number of specific facilities within a radius around addresses in a neighbourhood)-Overlapping PC4 area-Area land/water
Buildings/addresses (BAG) 2011–2020
Ac, NB, P4, P6 Key register addresses and buildings (BAG), Cadastre NL Vector dataset (point/ polygon) containing more than 10 million buildings and 9,3 million addresses (2020) on a scale starting from 1:2.500
-houses, buildings, berths, beach pavilions, caravans, trailers, etc.
-utilization function
-construction year
-building area
Education 2018 A(r), NB, P4, P6 Dienst Uitvoering Onderwijs (DUO) - Ministry of Education, Culture and Science Coordinates and address data per school / institution. Data can be spatially summarized per indicated exposure zone
-primary schools
-secondary schools
-special schools
-higher education
Key statistics 4-digit postal code (a.o. sex and age of inhabitants, household composition, migration background) 1998–2018 P4 PC4 statistics - Statistics Netherlands (CBS) Available variables for PC4 and PC6 zones can differ. PC4 contains additional statistics from 2015 onwards
Other statistics 4-digit postal code (accessibility, childcare, facilities culture, -education, -health care, -sport, housing benefits/stock, income, land use, livability, living environ-ment typology, offices, retail and businesses, post offices, travel time, transactions/house prices) 1990–2015 (range can differ per variable) P4 Miscellaneous (a.o. ABF Research, SWING Real Estate Monitor, Statistics Netherlands (CBS), Dutch Ministry of the Interior and Kingdom Relations)  
Key statistics 6-digit postal code (a.o. demographics, income, immigrants, housing stock) 2004, 2010 P6 PC6 statistics—Statistics Netherlands (CBS) Purchased data
Key statistical figures 2000–2018 Ac, NB, P4, P6 Vierkantstatistieken Statistics Netherlands (CBS) The CBS dataset ‘vierkantstatistieken’ contains basic statistics on number of inhabitants, dwellings, residential density and urbanity for all years and additional statistics from 2011 onwards
per 100 x 100 meter grid cell
    Number of inhabitants
    Inhabitants < 15 years
    Inhabitants 15–25 years
    Inhabitants 25–45 years
    Inhabitants 45–65 years
    Inhabitants > 65 years
    Total number of men
    Total number of women
    Percentage classes:
    Native Dutch
    Migr. backgr—western
    Migr. backgr—nonwestern
    Number or dwellings
Property values
Other statistics (households, property age classes, owned/ rented property, single/ multiple family dwellings, social security, energy use number of ca. 30 different destinations within 1/2/ 3 km, distance to nearest destinations (ca. 30)) 2015–2018    
Poverty in % ‘poor’ households 2017 NB, P4 The Netherlands Institute of Social Research (SCP) Percentage of ‘poor’ households according to SCP definitions per PC4 area and neighbourhood
Socio-economic status score 1998 2002 2006 2010 2014 2016 2017 P4 (NB 2016) The Netherlands Institute of Social Research (SCP) Socio-economic status scores are based on: education, income and position in the labour market)
6. Safety, aesthetics, air temperature Temperature per km grid 1961-current (daily per year Ac, NB, P4, P6 Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) 1 × 1 km grids of interpolated data (Inverse Distance Weighted interpolation, with 2.0 power parameter, block size 20 km and search radius of 110 km) based on 33–35 automatic KNMI observation stations
-Daily average
-Daily minimum
-Daily maximum
Traffic incidents Yearly 2003–2017 P6 Bestand geRegistreerde Ongevallen
Nederland (BRON)
Provided via ESRI Nl datasets