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Table 2 Main characteristics of the five clusters, GeoClasH, Mainland France

From: Beyond the map: evidencing the spatial dimension of health inequalities

Characteristics, mean (SD) Wealthy Metropolitan Areas (WMA) Precarious Population Districts (PPD) Residential Outskirts (RO) Agricultural and Industrial Plains (AIP) Rural Margins (RM) France
Population density (pop/km2) 813 (2793) 701 (1496) 77 (74) 43 (36) 19 (21) 178 (973)
Exposure to NO2 (µg/m3) 17.0 (6.0) 14.2 (5.4) 10.9 (2.8) 9.5 (2.3) 6.5 (2.2) 10.3 (4.4)
Exposure to PM (µg/m3) 19.4 (1.9) 18.6 (1.7) 18.2 (1.2) 18.0 (1.2) 17.1 (0.9) 18.0 (1.4)
Share of the area occupied by crops using pesticides (%) 34.0 (28.4) 23.3 (22.9) 45.7 (29.5) 52.0 (26.0) 10.0 (15.5) 35.6 (30.0)
Unemployment rate (%) 6.2 (1.7) 11.2 (2.9) 6.3 (1.9) 8.8 (2.6) 8.5 (3.3) 8.0 (3.0)
Annual income per household (€) 26,050 (3372) 19,162 (1750) 21,733 (1794) 19,270 (1376) 18,543 (1722) 20,335 (2808)
Labourers-employees (%) 38.4 (8.6) 59.1 (7.5) 50.0 (9.0) 63.2 (8.5) 52.5 (10.8) 54.4 (11.7)
Unattached individuals (%) 11.7 (4.3) 18.2 (5.1) 11.1 (3.0) 13.7 (3.5) 18.5 (4.7) 14.4 (5.3)
People without higher education diploma (%) 63.0 (8.1) 79.9 (5.8) 74.7 (5.3) 83.4 (4.3) 80.2 (6.2) 78.1 (7.9)
Journey time to hospital (min) 18.5 (8.5) 16.5 (10.4) 21.6 (8.3) 22.4 (8.2) 33.5 (14.2) 23.9 (11.7)
APL score to general practitioners 57.7 (22.9) 84.4 (33.4) 45.7 (26.2) 41.7 (24.7) 31.5 (31.9) 46.1 (31.6)
Number of municipalities 2920 3742 10159 10330 8647 35798
Overall population 14,435,670 32,023,919 8,717,397 5,902,766 2,948,094 64,027,846
  1. SD: Standard deviation, NO2: Nitrogen dioxide, PM: particulate matter, APL: localized potential accessibility