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Table 3 Palm and palm cluster distribution and density by land disturbance gradient

From: Landscape disturbance impacts on Attalea butyracea palm distribution in central Panama

  Land cover Palms Palm Clusters
Distribution Density Distribution Density
km2 % N % N/km2 N % N/km2
Mature forest 0.53 0.23 125 0.25 235.85 1 0.29 1.89
Secondary/planted forest 92.16 39.18 25,337 49.72 274.92 173 50.58 1.88
 New growth (≤ 5 years) 5.51 2.34 1593 3.13 289.11 9 2.63 1.63
 Established (> 5 years) 60.22 25.60 16,618 32.61 275.95 135 39.47 2.24
 Riparian zone 26.43 11.24 7126 13.98 269.62 29 8.48 1.10
Pasture 130.42 55.45 24,169 47.43 185.32 164 47.95 1.26
Food crops 3.91 1.66 299 0.59 76.47 1 0.29 0.26
Built environment 8.20 3.49 1025 2.01 125.00 3 0.88 0.37
Total 235.22   50,955    342   
  1. p value < 0.05 based on z-test for proportion compared to associated land cover
  2. p value < 0.01 based on z-test for proportion compared to associated land cover