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Table 3 Male—linear mixed model for SMI and grip strength by environment variable

From: Neighborhood environment and muscle mass and function among rural older adults: a 3-year longitudinal study

  SMI Grip strength
  Model 1a Model 2b Model 1a Model 2b
Variables β (95% CI) β (95% CI) β (95% CI) β (95% CI)
Year  − 0.05* (− 0.06, − 0.04)  −   − 0.41* (− 0.49, − 0.32)  − 
Land slope (ref = Low)   0.01 (− 0.11, 0.14)   0.93* (0.18, 1.68)
Year*Land slope (ref = Low)   0 (− 0.03, 0.03)    − 0.01 (− 0.2, 0.18)
Bus stop density (ref = Low)    − 0.15* (− 0.27, − 0.03)    − 0.33 (− 1.09, 0.43)
Year*Bus stop density (ref = Low)   0.01 (− 0.02, 0.04)    − 0.07 (− 0.26, 0.12)
Intersection density (ref = Low)   0.01 (− 0.11, 0.14)    − 0.49 (− 1.24, 0.26)
Year*Intersection density (ref = Low)   0 (− 0.03, 0.03)   0.13 (− 0.06, 0.31)
Residential density (ref = Low)    − 0.05 (− 0.17, 0.07)    − 0.13 (− 0.89, 0.62)
Year*Residential density (ref = Low)    − 0.01 (− 0.04, 0.02)   0.03 (− 0.16, 0.21)
Distance to community center (ref = Close)    − 0.03 (− 0.15, 0.1)   0.37 (− 0.39, 1.13)
Year*Distance to community center (ref = Close)   0.04* (0.01, 0.07)    − 0.02 (− 0.21, 0.17)
  1. Environment factors were added separately into all models
  2. *p < 0.05
  3. aModel 1: time only model
  4. bModel 2: conditional growth model by each environment factor adjusting for all covariates, i.e. age, town of residence, smoke, drink, physical activity, musculoskeletal disorders, cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular diseases