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Table 4 Female—linear mixed model for SMI and grip strength by environment variable

From: Neighborhood environment and muscle mass and function among rural older adults: a 3-year longitudinal study

  SMI Grip strength
Model 1a Model 2b Model 1a Model 2b
Variables β (95% CI) β (95% CI) β (95% CI) β (95% CI)
Year  − 0.03* (− 0.03, − 0.02)  −   − 0.21* (− 0.26, − 0.16)  − 0.1 (− 0.18, − 0.02)
Land slope (ref = Low)    − 0.01 (− 0.09, 0.07)   0.09 (− 0.33, 0.51)
Year*Land slope (ref = Low)   0 (− 0.02, 0.02)    − 0.05 (− 0.16, 0.06)
Bus stop density (ref = Low)    − 0.06 (− 0.14, 0.02)    − 0.61* (− 1.03, − 0.18)
Year*Bus stop density (ref = Low)   0.01 (− 0.01, 0.04)   0.07 (− 0.04, 0.18)
Intersection density (ref = Low)    − 0.03 (− 0.11, 0.05)    − 0.3 (− 0.72, 0.12)
Year*Intersection density (ref = Low)   0.01 (− 0.02, 0.03)   0.01 (− 0.1, 0.12)
Residential density (ref = Low)    − 0.02 (− 0.1, 0.05)    − 0.26 (− 0.69, 0.16)
Year*Residential density (ref = Low)   0.01 (− 0.02, 0.03)   0.13* (0.02, 0.24)
Distance to community center (ref = Close)   0.02 (− 0.06, 0.1)   0.53* (0.11, 0.96)
Year*Distance to community center (ref = Close)    − 0.01 (− 0.03, 0.01)    − 0.05 (− 0.16, 0.06)
  1. Environment factors were added separately into all models
  2. *p < 0.05
  3. aModel 1: time only model
  4. bModel 2: conditional growth model by each environment factor adjusting for all covariates, i.e. age, town of residence, smoke, drink, physical activity, musculoskeletal disorders, cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular diseases