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Table 4 Logistic regression of possible factors explaining low perceived health

From: Stress and perceived health among primary care visitors in two corners of Europe: Scandinavia and Greece

Factors Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Final model
OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value
Scandinavian Reference   Reference   Reference   Reference  
Greek 5.51 (2.15–14.14)  < 0.0001* 8.07 (3.96–16.50)  < 0.0001* 8.57 (4.06–18.09)  < 0.0001* 3.94 (1.81–8.60) 0.001*
Female Reference   Reference   Reference   Reference  
Male 0.69 (0.27–1.75) 0.44 0.62 (0.26–1.51) 0.30 0.65 (0.28–1.56) 0.34 0.71 (0.29–1.75) 0.45
Age (18–29Y) Reference   Reference   Reference   Reference  
Age (30–49 y) 1.34 (0.50–3.55.) 0.56 1.54 (0.63–3.78) 0.34 1.66 (0.68–4.09) 0.26 1.24 (0.51–3.04) 0.64
Age (50–65 Y) 0.35 (0.16–1.05) 0.06 0.39 (0.14–1.19) 0.07 0.48 (0.16–1.47) 0.20 0.32 (0.11–0.92) 0.03*
Employed Reference  
Unemployed 1.21 (0.50–2.94) 0.70
Not smoking Reference   Reference  
Smoker 2.24 (1.00–5.39.76) 0.07      2.37 (1.00–5.62) 0.05*
No experience of economic crisis Reference  
Experience of conomic crisis 0.50 (0.15–1.46 0.20
No Serious life events Reference   Reference  
Yes serious life events 1.00 (0.37–2.39) 0.90 2.12 (1.05–4.27) 0.04*
Hope for the future Reference   Reference  
Hopeless about the future 5.39 (1.97–14.75) 0.001* 6.00 (2.10–14.88) 0.001*
Cortisol medium Reference   _
Cortisol low 2.71 (0.31–23.76 0.37     
Cortisol high 3.50 (0.40–1.43) 0.26
Low perceived stress Reference  
High perceived Stress 1.76 (0.85–3.65) 0.13
No longstanding illness Reference    
Yes longstanding illness 0.68 (0.30–1.60) 0.38
No Anxiety Reference    
Anxiety medium 1.30 (0.55–3.06) 0.55
Anxiety high 2.02 (0.67–6.05) 0.21   
No Depression Reference  
Depression medium 0.95 (0.33–2.779 0.93   
Depression high 0.66 (0.15–2.90) 0.58
  1. Model 1 includes background factors and socioeconomic and psychosocial factors, model 2 includes background factors and stress indicators, model 3 includes background factors and indicator of illness. The final model only includes the background factors and significant indicators from the models. The model was significant, p-value 0.0001, Cox&Snell R Square 0.316 and Nagelkerke R Square 0.435
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