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Table 1 Selected characteristics of neighborhoods in years 1993, 2001 and 2011, Twin Cities Region

From: A method for estimating neighborhood characterization in studies of the association with availability of sit-down restaurants and supermarkets

Neighborhood characteristic 1993 a 2001 2011 Change b P value c
Number of observations (neighborhoods) 2083 2083 2083
Relative availability of sit-down restaurants and supermarkets
 Percent of sit-down restaurantsd, mean (SD) 16.1 ± 33.1 22.7 ± 36.4 26.2 ± 36.8 10.1 ± 41.4 < 0.05
 Percent of supermarketse, mean (SD) 2.0 ± 11.9 2.4 ± 12.9 5.3 ± 19.6 3.3 ± 20.1 < 0.05
Built environment characteristics
 Residential population density, 1000 person/km2, median (IQR) 1.2 (1.6) 1.2 (1.3) 1.3 (1.3) 0.0 (0.5) < 0.05
 Employment population density, 1000 person/km2, median (IQR) 0.6 (0.8) 0.7 (0.7) 0.7 (0.7) 0.0 (0.1) < 0.05
 Mix of land use f, median (IQR) 45.0 (48.0) 51.3 (49.7) 57.0 (46.0) 8.7 (20.4) < 0.05
 Percent of single-family housingg, median (IQR) 68.5 (65.4) 73.2 (64,9) 94.9 (36.8) 16.3 (27.0) < 0.05
 Total sit-down restaurants and fast food restaurants, median (IQR) 0.0 (1.0) 0.0 (2.0) 1.0 (2.0) 1.3 (3.2) < 0.05
 Total supermarkets, grocery stores and convenience stores, median (IQR) 0.0 (1.0) 1.0 (1.0) 1.0 (2.0) 0.2 (1.2) < 0.05
Sociodemographic characteristics
 Age, mean (SD)
  Percent of population under 14 22.2 ± 6.4 21.3 ± 6.8 19.9 ± 6.0 − 2.3 ± 4.8 < 0.05
  Percent of population 15–29 23.7 ± 7.3 20.9 ± 7.8 21.6 ± 8.4 − 2.1 ± 4.6 < 0.05
  Percent of population 30–44 27.2 ± 4.7 26.0 ± 4.8 21.9 ± 4.5 − 5.3 ± 5.0 < 0.05
  Percent of population 45–64 16.9 ± 5.0 21.2 ± 5.4 25.8 ± 5.7 8.9 ± 5.8 < 0.05
  Percent of population 65 or above 9.9 ± 6.6 10.5 ± 7.3 10.8 ± 6.0 0.9 ± 5.7 < 0.05
 Percent of population with education level of college or above, mean (SD) 57.6 ± 15.2 66.1 ± 14.9 68.1 ± 14.3 10.5 ± 8.6 < 0.05
 Race, median (IQR)
  Percent of white race 96.0 (5.0) 90.6 (13.0) 87.0 (16.0) − 10.8 (11.6) < 0.05
  Percent of black race 1.0 (3.0) 2.9 (5.1) 4.0 (9.0) 4.1 (7.2) < 0.05
 Median household incomeh, $1000, mean (SD) 38.2 ± 12.5 40.5 ± 15.1 37.1 ± 14.5 0.4 ± 7.5 < 0.05
 Time elapsed from 1993, year, mean (SD) 0 ± 0 8 ± 0 18 ± 0 18 ± 0
  1. IQR, interquartile range; SD, standard deviation
  2. aBecause we did not have neighborhood built environment and sociodemographic data for 1993, we assumed that data for 1990 would be valid substitutes for the missing 1993 data
  3. bChange in neighborhood characteristics from year 1993 to 2011
  4. cP value for one-tailed Student’s t-test of difference in means and Kruskal–Wallis H test of difference in medians from years 1993 and 2011
  5. dPercent of sit-down restaurants relative to total sit-down restaurants and fast food restaurants
  6. ePercent of supermarkets relative to total supermarkets, grocery stores and convenience stores
  7. fThe mix of land use was measured by examining three land use categories at the census block group (residential, employment and retail)
  8. gPercent of single-family housing relative to total single-family and multi-family housings
  9. hThe median household incomes in 1993 and 2001 were adjusted for inflation to compare with that in 2011