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Table 2 Summary of quantitative results in selected reviews

From: Associations between the built environment and obesity: an umbrella review

Study# First author No. of primary studies % longitudinal No. of continents covered No. of countries covered Overall quality Domain % of findings in expected direction
Urbanicity Food PA Socio-econ Pollution
1 An 16 50 3 4 2 0 0 0 0 1 11
2 Cobb 71 15 1 2 2 0 1 0 0 0 19
3 Durand 44 11 3 6 3 1 1 1 0 0 33
4 Feng 63 6 3 7 2 0 1 1 0 0 50
5 Ferdinand 169 N/A N/A N/A 2 0 1 1 0 0 89
6 Fleischghacker 40 3 3 5 2 0 1 0 0 0 60
7 Fraser 33 3 3 5 2 0 1 0 0 0 46
8 Gamba 51 14 1 1 3 0 1 0 0 0 32
9 Giskes 28 0 4 6 2 0 0 0 1 0 46
10 Lachowycz 60 0 3 9 2 0 0 1 0 0 21
11 Papas 20 10 3 3 2 0 1 1 0 0 85
12 Schule and Bolte 33 3 3 7 3 0 0 0 1 0 36
13 Sugiyama 41 17 4 9 2 0 0 1 0 0 39
14 Tseng 17 0 3 3 1 0 1 1 0 0 44
15 Wilkins 113 20 3 5 1 0 1 1 0 0 11
  1. #No. of studies: number of primary studies included, % longitudinal: percentage of primary studies that were longitudinal, no. of continents: number of continents present in the review, no. of countries: number of countries present in the review, overall quality: ROBIS results of the review as assessed in our umbrella review, domains depicted the different domains that were covered in the review and % expected associations is the percentage of associations in the review that was in the expected/ theorized direction. Domain names: PA physical activity, socioecon social inequality