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Table 3 Summary of evidence for associations between domains of the built environment and weight outcome

From: Associations between the built environment and obesity: an umbrella review

Domain Associations with weight (if domain is higher) Strength of evidence*
Urbanicity Lower weight in HIC and higher weight in LIMC Low
Food environment Overall null Very low
 Fastfood Some evidence for higher weight Low
Physical activity environment Overall inconsistent Low
 Walkability Lower weight Low
 Greenness Lower weight Low
 Transport Inconsistent Very low
 Sports facilities No systematic reviews found
 Motorised transport No systematic reviews found
Social inequality Confounder at both individual and neighbourhood level Moderate
Air pollution Inconsistent Very low
  1. *Strength of evidence is composed based on GRADE framework (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) [67]